Interventions for incarcerated adults with opioid use disorder in the United States: A systematic review with a focus on social determinants of health

Autoři: Olivia K. Sugarman aff001;  Marcus A. Bachhuber aff001;  Ashley Wennerstrom aff001;  Todd Bruno aff004;  Benjamin F. Springgate aff001
Působiště autorů: Center for Healthcare Value and Equity, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center–New Orleans, New Orleans, Louisiana, United States of America aff001;  Section of Community and Population Medicine, Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center–New Orleans, New Orleans, Louisiana, United States of America aff002;  Department of Behavioral and Community Health Sciences, School of Public Health, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center–New Orleans, New Orleans, Louisiana, United States of America aff003;  Schwartz Law Firm, LLC, Mount Pleasant, South Carolina, United States of America aff004
Vyšlo v časopise: PLoS ONE 15(1)
Kategorie: Research Article


Incarceration poses significant health risks for people involved in the criminal justice system. As the world’s leader in incarceration, the United States incarcerated population is at higher risk for infectious diseases, mental illness, and substance use disorder. Previous studies indicate that the mortality rate for people coming out of prison is almost 13 times higher than that of the general population; opioids contribute to nearly 1 in 8 post-release fatalities overall, and almost half of all overdose deaths. Given the hazardous intersection of incarceration, opioid use disorder, and social determinants of health, we systematically reviewed recent evidence on interventions for opioid use disorder (OUD) implemented as part of United States criminal justice system involvement, with an emphasis on social determinants of health (SDOH). We searched academic literature to identify eligible studies of an intervention for OUD that was implemented in the context of criminal justice system involvement (e.g., incarceration or parole/probation) for adults ages 19 and older. From 6,604 citations, 13 publications were included in final synthesis. Most interventions were implemented in prisons (n = 6 interventions), used medication interventions (n = 10), and did not include SDOH as part of the study design (n = 8). Interventions that initiated medication treatment early and throughout incarceration had significant, positive effects on opioid use outcomes. Evidence supports medication treatment administered throughout the period of criminal justice involvement as an effective method of improving post-release outcomes in individuals with criminal justice involvement. While few studies included SDOH components, many investigators recognized SDOH needs as competing priorities among justice-involved individuals. This review suggests an evidence gap; evidence-based interventions that address OUD and SDOH in the context of criminal justice involvement are urgently needed.

Klíčová slova:

Behavioral and social aspects of health – Criminal justice system – Drug therapy – Employment – Health education and awareness – Opioids – Prisons – Systematic reviews


1. World Prison Brief Institute for Criminal Policy Research. Highest to lowest—Prison population rate [Internet]. [cited 23 Oct 2018]. Available:

2. Binswanger IA, Blatchford PJ, Mueller SR, Stern MF. Mortality after prison release: Opioid overdose and other causes of death, risk factors, and time trends from 1999 to 2009. Ann Intern Med. American College of Physicians; 2013;159: 592. doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-159-9-201311050-00005 24189594

3. Binswanger IA, Stern MF, Deyo RA, Heagerty PJ, Cheadle A, Elmore JG, et al. Release from prison—A high risk of death for former inmates. N Engl J Med. 2007;356: 157–165. doi: 10.1056/NEJMsa064115 17215533

4. Scheyett A, Parker S, Golin C, White B, Davis CP, Wohl D. HIV-infected prison inmates: Depression and implications for release back to communities. AIDS Behav. NIH Public Access; 2010;14: 300–7. doi: 10.1007/s10461-008-9443-8 18709452

5. Dumont DM, Gjelsvik A, Redmond N, Rich JD. Jails as public health partners: Incarceration and disparities among medically underserved men. 2013; doi: 10.3149/jmh.1203.213 25374479

6. Maruschak LM, Bronson J. HIV in prisons, 2015—Statistical tables [Internet]. 2017. Available:

7. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Viral hepatitis surveillance—United States, 2015 [Internet]. 2015. Available:

8. Maruschak LM, Berzofsky M, Unangst J. Special report: Medical problems of state and federal prisoners and jail inmates, 2011–12 [Internet]. 2015. Available:

9. Bronson J, Stroop J, Statisticians B, Zimmer S, Berzofsky M. Drug use, dependence, and abuse among state prisoners and jail inmates, 2007–2009 [Internet]. 2007. Available:

10. Bronson J, Berzofsky M. Indicators of mental health problems reported by prisoners and jail inmates, 2011–12 [Internet]. Available:

11. Pizzicato LN, Drake R, Domer-Shank R, Johnson CC, Viner KM. Beyond the walls: Risk factors for overdose mortality following release from the Philadelphia Department of Prisons. Drug Alcohol Depend. Elsevier; 2018;189: 108–115. doi: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2018.04.034 29908410

12. Ranapurwala SI, Shanahan ME, Alexandridis AA, Proescholdbell SK, Naumann RB, Edwards D, et al. Opioid overdose mortality among former North Carolina inmates: 2000–2015. Am J Public Health. 2018;108: 1207–1213. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2018.304514 30024795

13. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Medication and counseling treatment. In: [Internet]. 2019 [cited 4 Oct 2019]. Available:

14. Center for Substance Abuse Treatment. Substance abuse treatment for adults in the criminal justice system. Treatment Improvement Protocol (TIP) Series 44. HHS Publication No. (SMA) 12–4056 [Internet]. Rockville, MD; 2005. Available:

15. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Use of Medication-Assisted Treatment for opioid use disorder in criminal justice settings. HHS Publication No. PEP19-MATUSECJS [Internet]. Rockville, Maryland; 2019. Available:

16. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Medication-Assisted Treatment (MAT) in the criminal justice system: Brief guidance to the states. HHS Publication No. PEP19-MATBRIEFCJS [Internet]. Available:

17. National Sheriff’s Association, National Commission on Correctional Health. Jail-based Medication-Assisted Treatment [Internet]. 2018. Available:

18. No. 19–1340 Brenda Smith v. Aroostook County; Shawn D. Gillen. 2019.

19. American Society of Addiction Medicine. The ASAM national practice guideline for the use of medications in the treatment of addiction involving opioid abuse [Internet]. 2015. Available:

20. Vestal C. New momentum for addiction treatment behind bars. PEW. 4 Apr 2018. Available:

21. Mallik-Kane K, Paddock E, Jannetta J. Health care after incarceration: How do formerly incarcerated men choose where and when to access physical and behavioral health services? [Internet]. Washington, D.C.; 2018. Available:

22. Raimondo GM. Executive Order 17–07 Taking further actions to address the opioid crisis [Internet]. Governor, State of Rhode Island; 2017. Available:

23. Dong KR, Must A, Tang AM, Beckwith CG, Stopka TJ. Competing priorities that rival health in adults on probation in Rhode Island: Substance use recovery, employment, housing, and food intake. BMC Public Health. BioMed Central; 2018;18. doi: 10.1186/S12889-018-5201-7 29482529

24. Blankenship KM, Del Rio Gonzalez AM, Keene DE, Groves AK, Rosenberg AP. Mass incarceration, race inequality, and health: Expanding concepts and assessing impacts on well-being. Soc Sci Med. NIH Public Access; 2018;215: 45–52. doi: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2018.08.042 30205278

25. World Health Organization. About social determinants of health [Internet]. WHO. World Health Organization; 2017. Available:

26. Nyamathi AM, Srivastava N, Salem BE, Wall S, Kwon J, Ekstrand M, et al. Female ex-offender perspectives on drug initiation, relapse, and desire to remain drug free. J Forensic Nurs. 2016;12: 81–90. doi: 10.1097/JFN.0000000000000110 27195929

27. Dennis AC, Barrington C, Hino S, Gould M, Wohl D, Golin CE, et al. "You’re in a world of chaos": Experiences accessing HIV care and adhering to medications after incarceration HHS Public Access. J Assoc Nurses AIDS Care. 2015;26: 542–555. doi: 10.1016/j.jana.2015.06.001 26188413

28. Westergaard RP, Spaulding AC, Flanigan TP. HIV among persons incarcerated in the USA: a review of evolving concepts in testing, treatment, and linkage to community care. Curr Opin Infect Dis. NIH Public Access; 2013;26: 10–6. doi: 10.1097/QCO.0b013e32835c1dd0 23221766

29. Couloute L. Nowhere to go: Homelessness among formerly incarcerated people. Prison Policy Initiative. 2018. Available:

30. Couloute L, Kopf D. Out of prison and out of work: Unemployment among formerly incarcerated people. Prison Policy Initiative. 2018. Available:

31. Trotter RT, Lininger MR, Camplain R, Fofanov VY, Camplain C, Baldwin JA, et al. A survey of health disparities, social determinants of health, and converging morbidities in a county jail: A cultural-ecological assessment of health conditions in jail populations. Int J Environ Res Public Health Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute (MDPI); 2018;15. doi: 10.3390/ijerph15112500 30413098

32. Hedrich D, Alves P, Farrell M, Stöver H, Møller L, Mayet S. The effectiveness of opioid maintenance treatment in prison settings: A systematic review. Addiction. 2012;107: 501–517. doi: 10.1111/j.1360-0443.2011.03676.x 21955033

33. Liberati A, Altman DG, Tetzlaff J, Mulrow C, Gøtzsche PC, Ioannidis JPA, et al. The PRISMA statement for reporting systematic reviews and meta-analyses of studies that evaluate health care interventions: Explanation and elaboration. PLoS Med. 2009;6: e1000100. doi: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1000100 19621070

34. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Drug overdose deaths hit record numbers in 2014. CDC Newsroom. 18 Dec 2015.

35. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. About the epidemic. In: [Internet]. 2019 [cited 9 Oct 2019]. Available:

36. Brinkley-Rubinstein L, McKenzie M, Macmadu A, Larney S, Zaller N, Dauria E, et al. A randomized, open label trial of methadone continuation versus forced withdrawal in a combined US prison and jail: Findings at 12 months post-release. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2018;184: 57–63. doi: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2017.11.023 29402680

37. Gordon MS, Kinlock TW, Schwartz RP, Fitzgerald TT, O’Grady KE, Vocci FJ. A randomized controlled trial of prison-initiated buprenorphine: Prison outcomes and community treatment entry. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2014;142: 33–40. doi: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2014.05.011 24962326

38. Gordon MS, Kinlock TW, Vocci FJ, Fitzgerald TT, Memisoglu A, Silverman B. A phase 4, pilot, open-label study of VIVITROL® (Extended-Release Naltrexone XR-NTX) for prisoners. J Subst Abuse Treat. 2015;59: 52–58. doi: 10.1016/j.jsat.2015.07.005 26299956

39. Gordon MS, Kinlock TW, Schwartz RP, O’Grady KE, Fitzgerald TT, Vocci FJ. A randomized clinical trial of buprenorphine for prisoners: Findings at 12-months post-release. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2017;172: 34–42. doi: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2016.11.037 28107680

40. Kobayashi L, Green TC, Bowman SE, Ray MC, Mckenzie MS, Rich JD, et al. Patient simulation for assessment of layperson management of opioid overdose with intranasal naloxone in a recently released prisoner cohort. 2017;12: 22–27. doi: 10.1097/SIH.0000000000000182 28146450

41. Rich JD, McKenzie M, Larney S, Wong JB, Tran L, Clarke J, et al. Methadone continuation versus forced withdrawal on incarceration in a combined US prison and jail: A randomised, open-label trial. Lancet. 2015;386: 350–359. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(14)62338-2 26028120

42. Vocci FJ, Schwartz RP, Wilson ME, Gordon MS, Kinlock TW, Fitzgerald TT, et al. Buprenorphine dose induction in non-opioid-tolerant pre-release prisoners. HHS Public Access. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2015;156: 133–138. doi: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2015.09.001 26409751

43. Fresquez-Chavez KR, Fogger S. Reduction of opiate withdrawal symptoms with use of clonidine in a county jail. J Correct Heal Care. 2015;21: 27–34. doi: 10.1177/1078345814557630 25431436

44. Lee JD, McDonald R, Grossman E, McNeely J, Laska E, Rotrosen J, et al. Opioid treatment at release from jail using extended-release naltrexone: A pilot proof-of-concept randomized effectiveness trial. Addiction. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd (10.1111); 2015;110: 1008–1014. doi: 10.1111/add.12894 25703440

45. Prendergast ML, Mccollister K, Warda U, Prendergast M. A randomized study of the use of Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) for drug and alcohol use with jail inmates. HHS Public Access. J Subst Abus Treat. 2017;74: 54–64. doi: 10.1016/j.jsat.2016.12.011 28132701

46. Fox AD, Anderson MR, Bartlett G, Valverde J, Starrels JL, Cunningham CO. Health outcomes and retention in care following release from prison for patients of an urban post-incarceration transitions clinic. NIH Public Access. J Heal Care Poor Underserved. 2014;25: 1139–1152. doi: 10.1353/hpu.2014.0139 25130230

47. Morse DS, Wilson JL, Mcmahon JM, Dozier AM, Quiroz A, Cerulli C. Does a primary health clinic for formerly incarcerated women increase linkage to care?. HHS Public Access. Womens Heal Issues. 2017;27: 499–508. doi: 10.1016/j.whi.2017.02.003 28302351

48. Christopher PP, Anderson B, Stein MD. Civil commitment experiences among opioid users. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2018;193: 137–141. doi: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2018.10.001 30384320

49. Welsh WN, Knudsen HK, Knight K, Ducharme L, Pankow J, Urbine T, et al. Effects of an organizational linkage intervention on inter-organizational service coordination between probation/parole agencies and community treatment providers. Adm Policy Ment Heal Ment Heal Serv Res. 2016;43: 105–121. doi: 10.1007/s10488-014-0623-8 25559124

Článek vyšel v časopise


2020 Číslo 1
Nejčtenější tento týden