Dynamic changes in the physicochemical properties of fresh-cut produce wash water as impacted by commodity type and processing conditions

Autoři: Jie Li aff001;  Zi Teng aff002;  ShihChi Weng aff004;  Bin Zhou aff002;  Ellen R. Turner aff002;  Bryan T. Vinyard aff005;  Yaguang Luo aff002
Působiště autorů: College of Food Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, PR China aff001;  U. S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Beltsville Agricultural, Research Center, Environmental Microbiology and Food Safety Laboratory, Beltsville, MD, United States of America aff002;  Department of Nutrition and Food Science, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, United States of America aff003;  JHU/MWH Alliance, 615 N. Wolfe St., Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD aff004;  Statistics Group, Northeast Area Office, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, MD, United States of America aff005
Vyšlo v časopise: PLoS ONE 14(9)
Kategorie: Research Article
doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0222174


Organic materials in fresh-cut produce wash water deplete free chlorine that is required to prevent pathogen survival and cross-contamination. This research evaluated water quality parameters frequently used to describe organic load for their fitness to predict chlorine demand (CLD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD), which are major needs identified by the industry-led produce food safety taskforce. Batches of romaine lettuce, iceberg lettuce, or carrot of different cut sizes and shapes were washed in 40 liters of water. Physicochemical properties of wash water including CLD, COD, total organic carbon (TOC), total suspended solids (TSS), total dissolved solids (TDS), turbidity, total sugar content, and pH, were monitored. Results indicate that pH is primarily commodity dependent, while organic load is additionally impacted by cutting and washing conditions. Significant linear increases in COD, TOC, CLD, TDS, and turbidity resulted from increasing product-to-water ratio, and decreasing cut size. Physicochemical parameters, excluding pH, showed significant positive correlation across different cut sizes within a commodity. High correlations were obtained between CLD and COD and between COD and TOC for pooled products. The convenient measurement of TDS, along with its strong correlation with COD and CLD, suggests the potential of TDS for predicting organic load and chlorine reactivity. Finally, the potential application and limitation of the proposed models in practical produce processing procedures are discussed extensively.

Klíčová slova:

Water quality – Chemical oxygen demand – Chlorine – Turbidity – Total dissolved solids – Physicochemical properties – Lettuce


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