Bacterial community composition of biofilms in milking machines of two dairy farms assessed by a combination of culture-dependent and –independent methods

Autoři: Mareike Weber aff001;  Janine Liedtke aff001;  Susanne Plattes aff002;  André Lipski aff001
Působiště autorů: Department of Food Microbiology and Hygiene, Institution of Nutrition and Food Science, Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-University, Bonn, North-Rhine-Westfalia, Germany aff001;  CIDRe, Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-University Bonn, Bonn, North-Rhine-Westfalia, Germany aff002
Vyšlo v časopise: PLoS ONE 14(9)
Kategorie: Research Article
doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0222238


Dairy biofilms as a source of contamination of milk and its products are of great concern in the dairy industry. For a reliable risk assessment, knowledge about the microbial community composition of biofilms in the milking systems of dairy farms must be improved. In this work, swab samples of milking machine biofilms of two dairy farms were investigated by a combination of culture-dependent and -independent methods. Spots in the milking system with enhanced microbial colonization were identified by quantification on selective and non-selective media. In addition, stainless steel coupons were placed into the piping system of a milking machine, removed after several milking intervals, and investigated for colonization by cultivation and culture-independently. Isolates were differentiated and identified by a combination of chemotaxonomical methods and 16S rRNA sequencing. The culture-independent approach involved treatment of the samples with the viability dye propidium monoazide prior to direct DNA-extraction by enzymatic cell lysis and cloning to exclude bias from dead biomass. The milking equipment retainers and the outlet of the milk bulk tank were identified as highly colonized spots on both farms. A high bacterial diversity was detected covering the phyla Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, and Proteobacteria. Presence of biofilms was demonstrated on several materials including stainless steel and plastic, which are frequently used in milking machines, but also in dairy processing plants. Growth of mainly Gram-positive bacteria with high percentages of the phylum Actinobacteria was detected on the stainless steel coupons after exposition in the milking system for two to three days. Knowledge about the heterogenic microbial load on different parts of the milking machines and the stainless steel coupons will help to identify primary colonizers of the milking system, to assess the risk potential of biofilms for raw milk, to improve sanitation processes and to identify parts of the milking machine, which should be improved by hygienic design.

Klíčová slova:

Biology and life sciences – Microbiology – Bacteriology – Bacterial biofilms – Biofilms – Medical microbiology – Microbial pathogens – Bacterial pathogens – Bacillus – Nutrition – Diet – Beverages – Milk – Anatomy – Body fluids – Physiology – Organisms – Bacteria – Actinobacteria – Medicine and health sciences – Pathology and laboratory medicine – Pathogens – Physical sciences – Materials science – Metallurgy – Alloys – Steel – Stainless steel – Engineering and technology – Equipment


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