Automated diagnosis of heart valve degradation using novelty detection algorithms and machine learning


Autoři: Bernhard Vennemann aff001;  Dominik Obrist aff002;  Thomas Rösgen aff001
Působiště autorů: Institute of Fluid Dynamics, ETH Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland aff001;  ARTORG Center for Biomedical Engineering Research, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland aff002
Vyšlo v časopise: PLoS ONE 14(9)
Kategorie: Research Article
doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0222983

Souhrn

The blood flow through the major vessels holds great diagnostic potential for the identification of cardiovascular complications and is therefore routinely assessed with current diagnostic modalities. Heart valves are subject to high hydrodynamic loads which render them prone to premature degradation. Failing native aortic valves are routinely replaced with bioprosthetic heart valves. This type of prosthesis is limited by a durability that is often less than the patient’s life expectancy. Frequent assessment of valvular function can therefore help to ensure good long-term outcomes and to plan reinterventions. In this article, we describe how unsupervised novelty detection algorithms can be used to automate the interpretation of blood flow data to improve outcomes through early detection of adverse cardiovascular events without requiring repeated check-ups in a clinical environment. The proposed method was tested in an in-vitro flow loop which allowed simulating a failing aortic valve in a laboratory setting. Aortic regurgitation of increasing severity was deliberately introduced with tube-shaped inserts, preventing complete valve closure during diastole. Blood flow recordings from a flow meter at the location of the ascending aorta were analyzed with the algorithms introduced in this article and a diagnostic index was defined that reflects the severity of valvular degradation. The results indicate that the proposed methodology offers a high sensitivity towards pathological changes of valvular function and that it is capable of automatically identifying valvular degradation. Such methods may be a step towards computer-assisted diagnostics and telemedicine that provide the clinician with novel tools to improve patient care.

Klíčová slova:

Blood flow – Data acquisition – Heart – Machine learning algorithms – Medical implants – Sensory physiology – Support vector machines – Flow rate


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2019 Číslo 9

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