Vibrational behavior of psyllids (Hemiptera: Psylloidea): Functional morphology and mechanisms

Autoři: Yi-Chang Liao aff001;  Zong-Ze Wu aff001;  Man-Miao Yang aff001
Působiště autorů: Department of Entomology, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung City, Taiwan aff001
Vyšlo v časopise: PLoS ONE 14(9)
Kategorie: Research Article
doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0215196


Vibrational behavior of psyllids was first documented more than six decades ago. Over the years, workers have postulated as to what the exact signal producing mechanisms of psyllids might be but the exact mechanism has remained elusive. The aim of this study is to determine the specific signal producing structures and mechanisms of the psyllids. Here we examine six hypotheses of signal producing mechanisms from both previous and current studies that include: wingbeat, wing-wing friction, wing-thorax friction, wing-leg friction, leg-abdomen friction, and axillary sclerite-thorax friction. Through selective removal of possible signal producing structures and measuring wing beat frequency with high speed videos, six hypotheses were tested. Extensive experiments were implemented on the species Macrohomotoma gladiata Kuwayama, while other species belonging to different families, i.e., Trioza sozanica (Boselli), Mesohomotoma camphorae Kuwayama, Cacopsylla oluanpiensis (Yang), and Cacopsylla tobirae (Miyatake) were also examined to determine the potential prevalence of each signal producing mechanism within the Psylloidea. Further, scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to examine possible rubbing structures. The result of high speed video recordings showed that wingbeat frequency did not match the dominant frequency of vibrational signals, resulting in the rejection of wingbeat hypothesis. As for the selective removal experiments, the axillary sclerite-thorax friction hypothesis is accepted and wing-thorax friction hypothesis is supported partially, while others are rejected. The SEM showed that the secondary axillary sclerite of the forewing bears many protuberances that would be suitable for stridulation. In conclusion, the signal producing mechanism of psyllids may involve two sets of morphological structures. The first is stridulation between the axillary sclerite of the forewing and the mesothorax. The second is stridulation between the axillary cord and anal area of the forewing.

Klíčová slova:

Biology and life sciences – Organisms – Eukaryota – Animals – Invertebrates – Arthropoda – Insects – Anatomy – Animal anatomy – Zoology – Animal wings – Physical sciences – Physics – Acoustics – Acoustic signals – Classical mechanics – Vibration – Medicine and health sciences – Abdomen – Thorax – Engineering and technology – Signal processing – Audio signal processing


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