DNA analysis of Castanea sativa (sweet chestnut) in Britain and Ireland: Elucidating European origins and genepool diversity


Autoři: Rob Jarman aff001;  Claudia Mattioni aff002;  Karen Russell aff003;  Frank M. Chambers aff001;  Debbie Bartlett aff004;  M. Angela Martin aff005;  Marcello Cherubini aff002;  Fiorella Villani aff002;  Julia Webb aff001
Působiště autorů: Centre for Environmental Change and Quaternary Research, School of Natural & Social Sciences, University of Gloucestershire, Cheltenham, United Kingdom aff001;  Istituto di Ricerca sugli Ecosistemi Terrestri (IRET), Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Porano, Italy aff002;  K Russell Consulting Ltd, Leighton Bromswold, Huntingdon, United Kingdom aff003;  Faculty of Engineering & Science, University of Greenwich, Chatham Maritime, United Kingdom aff004;  Department of Genetics, University of Cordoba, Cordoba, Spain aff005
Vyšlo v časopise: PLoS ONE 14(9)
Kategorie: Research Article
doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0222936

Souhrn

Castanea sativa is classified as non-indigenous in Britain and Ireland. It was long held that it was first introduced into Britain by the Romans, until a recent study found no corroborative evidence of its growing here before c. AD 650. This paper presents new data on the genetic diversity of C. sativa in Britain and Ireland and potential ancestral sources in continental Europe. Microsatellite markers and analytical methods tested in previous European studies were used to genotype over 600 C. sativa trees and coppice stools, sampled from ancient semi-natural woodlands, secondary woodlands and historic cultural sites across Britain and Ireland. A single overall genepool with a diverse admixture of genotypes was found, containing two sub groups differentiating Wales from Ireland, with discrete geographical and typological clusters. C. sativa genotypes in Britain and Ireland were found to relate predominantly to some sites in Portugal, Spain, France, Italy and Romania, but not to Greece, Turkey or eastern parts of Europe. C. sativa has come to Britain and Ireland from these western European areas, which had acted as refugia in the Last Glacial Maximum; we compare its introduction with the colonization/translocation of oak, ash, beech and hazel into Britain and Ireland. Clones of C. sativa were identified in Britain, defining for the first time the antiquity of some ancient trees and coppice stools, evincing both natural regeneration and anthropogenic propagation over many centuries and informing the chronology of the species’ arrival in Britain. This new evidence on the origins and antiquity of British and Irish C. sativa trees enhances their conservation and economic significance, important in the context of increasing threats from environmental change, pests and pathogens.

Klíčová slova:

Europe – Paleogenetics – Phylogenetic analysis – Trees – United Kingdom – Ireland – Wales – England


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