1. HeL, HannonGJ (2004) MicroRNAs: small RNAs with a big role in gene regulation. Nat Rev Genet 5: 522–531.
2. PasquinelliAE (2012) MicroRNAs and their targets: recognition, regulation and an emerging reciprocal relationship. Nat Rev Genet 13: 271–282.
3. SmallEM, FrostRJ, OlsonEN (2010) MicroRNAs add a new dimension to cardiovascular disease. Circulation 121: 1022–1032.
4. SkalskyRL, CullenBR (2010) Viruses, microRNAs, and host interactions. Annu Rev Microbiol 64: 123–141.
5. KumarswamyR, VolkmannI, ThumT (2011) Regulation and function of miRNA-21 in health and disease. RNA Biol 8: 706–713.
6. ChengY, ZhangC (2010) MicroRNA-21 in cardiovascular disease. J Cardiovasc Transl Res 3: 251–255.
7. SayedD, RaneS, LypowyJ, HeM, ChenIY, et al. (2008) MicroRNA-21 targets Sprouty2 and promotes cellular outgrowths. Mol Biol Cell 19: 3272–3282.
8. BauersachsJ (2012) miR-21: a central regulator of fibrosis not only in the broken heart. Cardiovasc Res 96: 227–229 discussion 230–223.
9. DongS, ChengY, YangJ, LiJ, LiuX, et al. (2009) MicroRNA expression signature and the role of microRNA-21 in the early phase of acute myocardial infarction. J Biol Chem 284: 29514–29525.
10. ThumT, GrossC, FiedlerJ, FischerT, KisslerS, et al. (2008) MicroRNA-21 contributes to myocardial disease by stimulating MAP kinase signalling in fibroblasts. Nature 456: 980–984.
11. TatsuguchiM, SeokHY, CallisTE, ThomsonJM, ChenJF, et al. (2007) Expression of microRNAs is dynamically regulated during cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. J Mol Cell Cardiol 42: 1137–1141.
12. ChengY, LiuX, ZhangS, LinY, YangJ, et al. (2009) MicroRNA-21 protects against the H(2)O(2)-induced injury on cardiac myocytes via its target gene PDCD4. J Mol Cell Cardiol 47: 5–14.
13. PatrickDM, MontgomeryRL, QiX, ObadS, KauppinenS, et al. (2010) Stress-dependent cardiac remodeling occurs in the absence of microRNA-21 in mice. J Clin Invest 120: 3912–3916.
14. RosatoP, AnastasiadouE, GargN, LenzeD, BoccellatoF, et al. (2012) Differential regulation of miR-21 and miR-146a by Epstein-Barr virus-encoded EBNA2. Leukemia 26: 2343–2352.
15. ChenY, ChenJ, WangH, ShiJ, WuK, et al. (2013) HCV-induced miR-21 contributes to evasion of host immune system by targeting MyD88 and IRAK1. PLoS Pathog 9: e1003248.
16. HuberSA, GaunttCJ, SakkinenP (1998) Enteroviruses and myocarditis: viral pathogenesis through replication, cytokine induction, and immunopathogenicity. Adv Virus Res 51: 35–80.
17. EckartRE, ScovilleSL, CampbellCL, ShryEA, StajduharKC, et al. (2004) Sudden death in young adults: a 25-year review of autopsies in military recruits. Ann Intern Med 141: 829–834.
18. HoBC, YuSL, ChenJJ, ChangSY, YanBS, et al. (2011) Enterovirus-induced miR-141 contributes to shutoff of host protein translation by targeting the translation initiation factor eIF4E. Cell Host Microbe 9: 58–69.
19. CorstenMF, PapageorgiouA, VerhesenW, CaraiP, LindowM, et al. (2012) MicroRNA profiling identifies microRNA-155 as an adverse mediator of cardiac injury and dysfunction during acute viral myocarditis. Circ Res 111: 415–425.
20. HemidaMG, YeX, ZhangHM, HansonPJ, LiuZ, et al. (2013) MicroRNA-203 enhances coxsackievirus B3 replication through targeting zinc finger protein-148. Cell Mol Life Sci 70: 277–291.
21. XuHF, DingYJ, ShenYW, XueAM, XuHM, et al. (2012) MicroRNA- 1 represses Cx43 expression in viral myocarditis. Mol Cell Biochem 362: 141–148.
22. LiuYL, WuW, XueY, GaoM, YanY, et al. (2013) MicroRNA-21 and -146b are involved in the pathogenesis of murine viral myocarditis by regulating TH-17 differentiation. Arch Virol 7: 593–608.
23. SheikhF, RossRS, ChenJ (2009) Cell-cell connection to cardiac disease. Trends Cardiovasc Med 19: 182–190.
24. GarrodDR, BerikaMY, BardsleyWF, HolmesD, TaberneroL (2005) Hyper-adhesion in desmosomes: its regulation in wound healing and possible relationship to cadherin crystal structure. J Cell Sci 118: 5743–5754.
25. JamoraC, FuchsE (2002) Intercellular adhesion, signalling and the cytoskeleton. Nat Cell Biol 4: E101–108.
26. NoormanM, van der HeydenMA, van VeenTA, CoxMG, HauerRN, et al. (2009) Cardiac cell-cell junctions in health and disease: Electrical versus mechanical coupling. J Mol Cell Cardiol 47: 23–31.
27. DennertR, CrijnsHJ, HeymansS (2008) Acute viral myocarditis. Eur Heart J 29: 2073–2082.
28. LewisBP, BurgeCB, BartelDP (2005) Conserved seed pairing, often flanked by adenosines, indicates that thousands of human genes are microRNA targets. Cell 120: 15–20.
29. DweepH, StichtC, PandeyP, GretzN (2011) miRWalk–database: prediction of possible miRNA binding sites by “walking” the genes of three genomes. J Biomed Inform 44: 839–847.
30. BaronCP, JacobsenS, PurslowPP (2004) Cleavage of desmin by cysteine proteases: Calpains and cathepsin B. Meat Sci 68: 447–456.
31. ChenF, ChangR, TrivediM, CapetanakiY, CrynsVL (2003) Caspase proteolysis of desmin produces a dominant-negative inhibitor of intermediate filaments and promotes apoptosis. J Biol Chem 278: 6848–6853.
32. CohenS, ZhaiB, GygiSP, GoldbergAL (2012) Ubiquitylation by Trim32 causes coupled loss of desmin, Z-bands, and thin filaments in muscle atrophy. J Cell Biol 198: 575–589.
33. ErnstR, MuellerB, PloeghHL, SchliekerC (2009) The otubain YOD1 is a deubiquitinating enzyme that associates with p97 to facilitate protein dislocation from the ER. Mol Cell 36: 28–38.
34. NewtonK, MatsumotoML, WertzIE, KirkpatrickDS, LillJR, et al. (2008) Ubiquitin chain editing revealed by polyubiquitin linkage-specific antibodies. Cell 134: 668–678.
35. WagnerSA, BeliP, WeinertBT, ScholzC, KelstrupCD, et al. (2012) Proteomic analyses reveal divergent ubiquitylation site patterns in murine tissues. Mol Cell Proteomics 11: 1578–1585.
36. XuG, PaigeJS, JaffreySR (2010) Global analysis of lysine ubiquitination by ubiquitin remnant immunoaffinity profiling. Nat Biotechnol 28: 868–873.
37. KimW, BennettEJ, HuttlinEL, GuoA, LiJ, et al. (2011) Systematic and quantitative assessment of the ubiquitin-modified proteome. Mol Cell 44: 325–340.
38. FujitaS, ItoT, MizutaniT, MinoguchiS, YamamichiN, et al. (2008) miR-21 Gene expression triggered by AP-1 is sustained through a double-negative feedback mechanism. J Mol Biol 378: 492–504.
39. IliopoulosD, JaegerSA, HirschHA, BulykML, StruhlK (2010) STAT3 activation of miR-21 and miR-181b-1 via PTEN and CYLD are part of the epigenetic switch linking inflammation to cancer. Mol Cell 39: 493–506.
40. PerdigueroE, Sousa-VictorP, Ruiz-BonillaV, JardiM, CaellesC, et al. (2011) p38/MKP-1-regulated AKT coordinates macrophage transitions and resolution of inflammation during tissue repair. J Cell Biol 195: 307–322.
41. YasukawaH, YajimaT, DuplainH, IwatateM, KidoM, et al. (2003) The suppressor of cytokine signaling-1 (SOCS1) is a novel therapeutic target for enterovirus-induced cardiac injury. J Clin Invest 111: 469–478.
42. JensenKJ, GarmaroudiFS, ZhangJ, LinJ, BoroomandS, et al. (2013) An ERK-p38 subnetwork coordinates host cell apoptosis and necrosis during coxsackievirus B3 infection. Cell Host Microbe 13: 67–76.
43. BanerjeeI, FuselerJW, PriceRL, BorgTK, BaudinoTA (2007) Determination of cell types and numbers during cardiac development in the neonatal and adult rat and mouse. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 293: H1883–1891.
44. ShiY, ChenC, LisewskiU, WrackmeyerU, RadkeM, et al. (2009) Cardiac deletion of the Coxsackievirus-adenovirus receptor abolishes Coxsackievirus B3 infection and prevents myocarditis in vivo. J Am Coll Cardiol 53: 1219–1226.
45. RoyS, KhannaS, HussainSR, BiswasS, AzadA, et al. (2009) MicroRNA expression in response to murine myocardial infarction: miR-21 regulates fibroblast metalloprotease-2 via phosphatase and tensin homologue. Cardiovasc Res 82: 21–29.
46. AbstonED, CoronadoMJ, BucekA, OnyimbaJA, BrandtJE, et al. (2013) TLR3 deficiency induces chronic inflammatory cardiomyopathy in resistant mice following coxsackievirus B3 infection: role for IL-4. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 304: R267–277.
47. GuiJ, YueY, ChenR, XuW, XiongS (2012) A20 (TNFAIP3) alleviates CVB3-induced myocarditis via inhibiting NF-kappaB signaling. PLoS One 7: e46515.
48. Smigielska-CzepielK, van den BergA, JellemaP, Slezak-ProchazkaI, MaatH, et al. (2013) Dual role of miR-21 in CD4+ T-cells: activation-induced miR-21 supports survival of memory T-cells and regulates CCR7 expression in naive T-cells. PLoS One 8: e76217.
49. JuY, WangT, LiY, XinW, WangS, et al. (2007) Coxsackievirus B3 affects endothelial tight junctions: possible relationship to ZO-1 and F-actin, as well as p38 MAPK activity. Cell Biol Int 31: 1207–1213.
50. KartenbeckJ, FrankeWW, MoserJG, StoffelsU (1983) Specific attachment of desmin filaments to desmosomal plaques in cardiac myocytes. EMBO J 2: 735–742.
51. McLendonPM, RobbinsJ (2011) Desmin-related cardiomyopathy: an unfolding story. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 301: H1220–1228.
52. BaloghJ, MerisckayM, LiZ, PaulinD, ArnerA (2002) Hearts from mice lacking desmin have a myopathy with impaired active force generation and unaltered wall compliance. Cardiovasc Res 53: 439–450.
53. LiZ, Colucci-GuyonE, Pincon-RaymondM, MericskayM, PourninS, et al. (1996) Cardiovascular lesions and skeletal myopathy in mice lacking desmin. Dev Biol 175: 362–366.
54. MilnerDJ, WeitzerG, TranD, BradleyA, CapetanakiY (1996) Disruption of muscle architecture and myocardial degeneration in mice lacking desmin. J Cell Biol 134: 1255–1270.
55. GoncharovT, NiessenK, de AlmagroMC, Izrael-TomasevicA, FedorovaAV, et al. (2013) OTUB1 modulates c-IAP1 stability to regulate signalling pathways. EMBO J 32: 1103–1114.
56. SunXX, ChallagundlaKB, DaiMS (2012) Positive regulation of p53 stability and activity by the deubiquitinating enzyme Otubain 1. EMBO J 31: 576–592.
57. XuP, DuongDM, SeyfriedNT, ChengD, XieY, et al. (2009) Quantitative proteomics reveals the function of unconventional ubiquitin chains in proteasomal degradation. Cell 137: 133–145.
58. PickartCM, FushmanD (2004) Polyubiquitin chains: polymeric protein signals. Curr Opin Chem Biol 8: 610–616.
59. MarchantD, SiX, LuoH, McManusB, YangD (2008) The impact of CVB3 infection on host cell biology. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 323: 177–198.
60. Zemljic-HarpfAE, MillerJC, HendersonSA, WrightAT, MansoAM, et al. (2007) Cardiac-myocyte-specific excision of the vinculin gene disrupts cellular junctions, causing sudden death or dilated cardiomyopathy. Mol Cell Biol 27: 7522–7537.
61. RalfkiaerU, HagedornPH, BangsgaardN, LovendorfMB, AhlerCB, et al. (2011) Diagnostic microRNA profiling in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL). Blood 118: 5891–5900.
62. MarchantD, DouY, LuoH, GarmaroudiFS, McDonoughJE, et al. (2009) Bosentan enhances viral load via endothelin-1 receptor type-A-mediated p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase activation while improving cardiac function during coxsackievirus-induced myocarditis. Circ Res 104: 813–821.