Targeting mitochondrial and cytosolic substrates of TRIT1 isopentenyltransferase: Specificity determinants and tRNA-i6A37 profiles


Autoři: Abdul Khalique aff001;  Sandy Mattijssen aff001;  Alexander F. Haddad aff001;  Shereen Chaudhry aff001;  Richard J. Maraia aff001
Působiště autorů: Intramural Research Program of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, of the National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America aff001;  Commissioned Corps, United States Public Health Service, Rockville, Maryland, United States of America aff002
Vyšlo v časopise: Targeting mitochondrial and cytosolic substrates of TRIT1 isopentenyltransferase: Specificity determinants and tRNA-i6A37 profiles. PLoS Genet 16(4): e32767. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1008330
Kategorie: Research Article
doi: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1008330

Souhrn

The tRNA isopentenyltransferases (IPTases), which add an isopentenyl group to N6 of A37 (i6A37) of certain tRNAs, are among a minority of enzymes that modify cytosolic and mitochondrial tRNAs. Pathogenic mutations to the human IPTase, TRIT1, that decrease i6A37 levels, cause mitochondrial insufficiency that leads to neurodevelopmental disease. We show that TRIT1 encodes an amino-terminal mitochondrial targeting sequence (MTS) that directs mitochondrial import and modification of mitochondrial-tRNAs. Full understanding of IPTase function must consider the tRNAs selected for modification, which vary among species, and in their cytosol and mitochondria. Selection is principally via recognition of the tRNA A36-A37-A38 sequence. An exception is unmodified tRNATrpCCA-A37-A38 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, whereas tRNATrpCCA is readily modified in Schizosaccharomyces pombe, indicating variable IPTase recognition systems and suggesting that additional exceptions may account for some of the tRNA-i6A37 paucity in higher eukaryotes. Yet TRIT1 had not been characterized for restrictive type substrate-specific recognition. We used i6A37-dependent tRNA-mediated suppression and i6A37-sensitive northern blotting to examine IPTase activities in S. pombe and S. cerevisiae lacking endogenous IPTases on a diversity of tRNA-A36-A37-A38 substrates. Point mutations to the TRIT1 MTS that decrease human mitochondrial import, decrease modification of mitochondrial but not cytosolic tRNAs in both yeasts. TRIT1 exhibits clear substrate-specific restriction against a cytosolic-tRNATrpCCA-A37-A38. Additional data suggest that position 32 of tRNATrpCCA is a conditional determinant for substrate-specific i6A37 modification by the restrictive IPTases, Mod5 and TRIT1. The cumulative biochemical and phylogenetic sequence analyses provide new insights into IPTase activities and determinants of tRNA-i6A37 profiles in cytosol and mitochondria.

Klíčová slova:

Eukaryota – Mitochondria – Northern blot – Point mutation – Saccharomyces cerevisiae – Schizosaccharomyces pombe – Transfer RNA – Anticodons


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