Systematic identification of functional SNPs interrupting 3’UTR polyadenylation signals


Autoři: Eldad David Shulman aff001;  Ran Elkon aff001
Působiště autorů: Department of Human Molecular Genetics and Biochemistry, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel aff001
Vyšlo v časopise: Systematic identification of functional SNPs interrupting 3’UTR polyadenylation signals. PLoS Genet 16(8): e32767. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1008977
Kategorie: Research Article
doi: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1008977

Souhrn

Alternative polyadenylation (APA) is emerging as a widespread regulatory layer since the majority of human protein-coding genes contain several polyadenylation (p(A)) sites in their 3’UTRs. By generating isoforms with different 3’UTR length, APA potentially affects mRNA stability, translation efficiency, nuclear export, and cellular localization. Polyadenylation sites are regulated by adjacent RNA cis-regulatory elements, the principals among them are the polyadenylation signal (PAS) AAUAAA and its main variant AUUAAA, typically located ~20-nt upstream of the p(A) site. Mutations in PAS and other auxiliary poly(A) cis-elements in the 3’UTR of several genes have been shown to cause human Mendelian diseases, and to date, only a few common SNPs that regulate APA were associated with complex diseases. Here, we systematically searched for SNPs that affect gene expression and human traits by modulation of 3’UTR APA. First, focusing on the variants most likely to exert the strongest effect, we identified 2,305 SNPs that interrupt the canonical PAS or its main variant. Implementing pA-QTL tests using GTEx RNA-seq data, we identified 330 PAS SNPs (called PAS pA-QTLs) that were significantly associated with the usage of their p(A) site. As expected, PAS-interrupting alleles were mostly linked with decreased cleavage at their p(A) site and the consequential 3’UTR lengthening. However, interestingly, in ~10% of the cases, the PAS-interrupting allele was associated with increased usage of an upstream p(A) site and 3’UTR shortening. As an indication of the functional effects of these PAS pA-QTLs on gene expression and complex human traits, we observed for few dozens of them marked colocalization with eQTL and/or GWAS signals. The PAS-interrupting alleles linked with 3’UTR lengthening were also strongly associated with decreased gene expression, indicating that shorter isoforms generated by APA are generally more stable than longer ones. Last, we carried out an extended, genome-wide analysis of 3’UTR variants and detected thousands of additional pA-QTLs having weaker effects compared to the PAS pA-QTLs.

Klíčová slova:

Alleles – Gene expression – Gene regulation – Genome-wide association studies – Genomic signal processing – Messenger RNA – Polyadenylation – Single nucleotide polymorphisms


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PLOS Genetics


2020 Číslo 8

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