Innate and adaptive immunity associated with resolution of acute woodchuck hepatitis virus infection in adult woodchucks


Autoři: Manasa Suresh aff001;  Stefanie Czerwinski aff001;  Marta G. Murreddu aff001;  Bhaskar V. Kallakury aff002;  Ashika Ramesh aff003;  Severin O. Gudima aff004;  Stephan Menne aff001
Působiště autorů: Department of Microbiology & Immunology, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, DC, United States of America aff001;  Department of Pathology, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, DC, United States of America aff002;  Department of Biochemistry and Molecular & Cellular Biology, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, DC, United States of America aff003;  Department of Microbiology, Molecular Genetics & Immunology, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS, United States of America aff004
Vyšlo v časopise: Innate and adaptive immunity associated with resolution of acute woodchuck hepatitis virus infection in adult woodchucks. PLoS Pathog 15(12): e32767. doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1008248
Kategorie: Research Article
doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1008248

Souhrn

Viral and/or host factors that are directly responsible for the acute versus chronic outcome of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection have not been identified yet. Information on immune response during the early stages of HBV infection in humans is mainly derived from blood samples of patients with acute hepatitis B (AHB), which are usually obtained after the onset of clinical symptoms. Features of intrahepatic immune response in these patients are less studied due to the difficulty of obtaining multiple liver biopsies. Woodchuck hepatitis virus (WHV) infection in woodchucks is a model for HBV infection in humans. In the present study, five adult woodchucks were experimentally infected with WHV and then followed for 18 weeks. Blood and liver tissues were frequently collected for assaying markers of WHV replication and innate and adaptive immune responses. Liver tissues were further analyzed for pathological changes and stained for important immune cell subsets and cytokines. The increase and subsequent decline of viral replication markers in serum and liver, the elicitation of antibodies against viral proteins, and the induction of virus-specific T-cell responses indicated eventual resolution of acute WHV infection in all animals. Intrahepatic innate immune makers stayed unchanged immediately after the infection, but increased markedly during resolution, as determined by changes in transcript levels. The presence of interferon-gamma and expression of natural killer (NK) cell markers suggested that a non-cytolytic response mechanism is involved in the initial viral control in liver. This was followed by the expression of T-cell markers and cytolytic effector molecules, indicating the induction of a cytolytic response mechanism. Parallel increases in regulatory T-cell markers suggested that this cell subset participates in the overall immune cell infiltration in liver and/or has a role in regulating AHB induced by the cytolytic response mechanism. Since the transcript levels of immune cell markers in blood, when detectable, were lower than in liver, and the kinetics, except for NK-cells and interferon-gamma, did not correlate well with their intrahepatic expression, this further indicated enrichment of immune cells within liver. Conclusion: The coordinated interplay of innate and adaptive immunity mediates viral clearance in the woodchuck animal model of HBV infection. The initial presence of NK-cell associated interferon-gamma response points to an important role of this cytokine in HBV resolution.

Klíčová slova:

Antibodies – Blood – Cytotoxic T cells – Hepatitis B virus – Immune cells – Immune response – T cells – Viral replication


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Hygiena a epidemiologie Infekční lékařství Laboratoř

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