A dispensable paralog of succinate dehydrogenase subunit C mediates standing resistance towards a subclass of SDHI fungicides in Zymoseptoria tritici


Autoři: Diana Steinhauer aff001;  Marie Salat aff001;  Regula Frey aff001;  Andreas Mosbach aff001;  Torsten Luksch aff001;  Dirk Balmer aff001;  Rasmus Hansen aff002;  Stephanie Widdison aff002;  Grace Logan aff002;  Robert A. Dietrich aff003;  Gert H. J. Kema aff004;  Stephane Bieri aff001;  Helge Sierotzki aff001;  Stefano F. F. Torriani aff001;  Gabriel Scalliet aff001
Působiště autorů: Syngenta Crop Protection AG, Stein, Switzerland aff001;  Syngenta Jealott’s Hill Int. Research Centre, Bracknell Berkshire, United Kingdom aff002;  Syngenta Biotechnology Inc., Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, United States of America aff003;  Wageningen University and Research, The Netherlands aff004
Vyšlo v časopise: A dispensable paralog of succinate dehydrogenase subunit C mediates standing resistance towards a subclass of SDHI fungicides in Zymoseptoria tritici. PLoS Pathog 15(12): e32767. doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1007780
Kategorie: Research Article
doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1007780

Souhrn

Succinate dehydrogenase inhibitor (SDHI) fungicides are widely used for the control of a broad range of fungal diseases. This has been the most rapidly expanding fungicide group in terms of new molecules discovered and introduced for agricultural use over the past fifteen years. A particular pattern of differential sensitivity (resistance) to the stretched heterocycle amide SDHIs (SHA-SDHIs), a subclass of chemically-related SDHIs, was observed in naïve Zymoseptoria tritici populations not previously exposed to these chemicals. Subclass-specific resistance was confirmed at the enzyme level but did not correlate with the genotypes of the succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) encoding genes. Mapping and characterization of the molecular mechanisms responsible for standing SHA-SDHI resistance in natural field isolates identified a gene paralog of SDHC, termed ZtSDHC3, which encodes for an alternative C subunit of succinate dehydrogenase, named alt-SDHC. Using reverse genetics, we showed that alt-SDHC associates with the three other SDH subunits, leading to a fully functional enzyme and that a unique Qp-site residue within the alt-SDHC protein confers SHA-SDHI resistance. Enzymatic assays, computational modelling and docking simulations for the two SQR enzymes (altC-SQR, WT_SQR) enabled us to describe enzyme-inhibitor interactions at an atomistic level and to propose rational explanations for differential potency and resistance across SHA-SDHIs. European Z. tritici populations displayed a presence (20–30%) / absence polymorphism of ZtSDHC3, as well as differences in ZtSDHC3 expression levels and splicing efficiency. These polymorphisms have a strong impact on SHA-SDHI resistance phenotypes. Characterization of the ZtSDHC3 promoter in European Z. tritici populations suggests that transposon insertions are associated with the strongest resistance phenotypes. These results establish that a dispensable paralogous gene determines SHA-SDHIs fungicide resistance in natural populations of Z. tritici. This study paves the way to an increased awareness of the role of fungicidal target paralogs in resistance to fungicides and demonstrates the paramount importance of population genomics in fungicide discovery.

Klíčová slova:

Europe – Fungal genetics – Fungicides – Genetic loci – Genomics – Mitochondria – Polymerase chain reaction – Transposable elements


Zdroje

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Hygiena a epidemiologie Infekční lékařství Laboratoř

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PLOS Pathogens


2019 Číslo 12

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