1. Lichtenstein P, Holm NV, Verkasalo PK et al. Environmental and heritable factors in the causation of cancer - analyses of cohorts of twins from Sweden, Denmark, and Finland. N Engl J Med 2000; 343: 78-85.
2. Hsing AW, Devesa SS. Trends and patterns of prostate cancer: what do they suggest? Epidemiol Rev 2001; 23: 3-13.
3. Kolonel LN, Altshuler D, Henderson BE. The multiethnic cohort study: exploring genes, lifestyle and cancer risk. Nat Rev Cancer 2004; 4: 519-527.
4. Wolk A. Diet, lifestyle and risk of prostate cancer. Acta Oncol 2005; 44: 277-281.
5. Shukla S, Gupta S. Dietary agents in the chemoprevention of prostate cancer. Nutr Cancer 2005; 53: 18-32.
6. Chong P, Rashid P. Can we prevent prostate cancer? Aust Fam Physician 2005; 34: 265-7.
7. Sonn GA, Aronson W, Litwin MS. Impact of diet on prostate cancer: a review. Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis 2005; 8: 304-310.
8. Chan JM, Gann PH, Giovannucci EL. Role of diet in prostate cancer development and progression. J Clin Oncol 2005; 23: 8152-8160.
9. Hsing AW, Chokkalingam AP. Prostate cancer epidemiology. Front Biosci 2006; 11: 1388-1413.
10. Cross AJ, Peters U, Kirsh VA et al. A prospective study of meat and meat mutagens and prostate cancer risk. Cancer Res 2005; 65: 11779-11784.
11. Rodriguez C, McCullough ML, Mondul AM et al. Meat consumption among Black and White men and risk of prostate cancer in the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2006; 15: 211-216.
12. Chan JM, Giovannucci E, Andersson SO et al. Dairy products, calcium, phosphorous, vitamin D, and risk of prostate cancer (Sweden). Cancer Causes Control 1998; 9: 559-566.
13. Stuart GR, Holcroft J, de Boer JG et al. Prostate mutations in rats induced by the suspected human carcinogen 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5- b]pyridine. Cancer Res 2000; 60: 266-268.
14. Platz EA, Helzlsouer KJ. Selenium, zinc, and prostate cancer. Epidemiol Rev 2001; 23: 93-101.
15. Leitzmann MF, Stampfer MJ, Wu K et al. Zinc supplement use and risk of prostate cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 2003; 95: 1004-1007.
16. Larsson SC, Wolk K, Brismar K et al. Association of diet with serum insulin-like growth factor I in middle- aged and elderly men. Am J Clin Nutr 2005; 81: 1163-1167.
17. Renehan AG, Zwahlen M, Minder C et al. Insulinlike growth factor (IGF)-I, IGF binding protein-3, and cancer risk: systematic review and meta-regression analysis. Lancet 2004; 363: 1346-1353.
18. Walker M, Aronson KJ, King W et al. Dietary patterns and risk of prostate cancer in Ontario, Canada. Int J Cancer 2005; 116: 592-598.
19. Giovannucci E, Rimm EB, Wolk A et al. Calcium and fructose intake in relation to risk of prostate cancer. Cancer Res 1998; 58: 442-447. 20. Baron JA, Beach M, Wallace K et al. Risk of prostate cancer in a randomized clinical trial of calcium supplementation. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2005; 14: 586-589.
21. Holmes MD, Pollak MN, Willett WC et al. Dietary correlates of plasma insulin-like growth factor I and insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 concentrations. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2002; 11: 852-861.
22. Thornburg T, Turner AR, Chen YQ et al. Phytanic acid, AMACR and prostate cancer risk. Future Oncol 2002; 2: 213-223.
23. Fruits and vegetables. In: Vainio H, Bianchini F ed. International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), World Health Organization, 2003.
24. Gonzalez CA. The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Public Health Nutr 2006; 9: 124-126.
25. Kristal AR, Schenk JM. Directions for future epidemiological research in lycopene and prostate cancer risk. J Nutr 2005; 135: 2037S-9S.
26. Giovannucci E, Rimm EB, Liu Y et al. A prospective study of tomato products, lycopene, and prostate cancer risk. J Natl Cancer Inst 2002; 94: 391-398.
27. Etminan M, Takkouche B, Caamano-Isorna F. The role of tomato products and lycopene in the prevention of prostate cancer: a meta-analysis of observational studies. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2004; 13: 340-345.
28. McCann SE, Ambrosone CB, Moysich KB et al. Intakes of selected nutrients, foods, and phytochemicals and prostate cancer risk in western New York. Nutr Cancer 2005; 53: 33-41.
29. Key TJ, Allen N, Appleby P et al. Fruits and vegetables and prostate cancer: no association among 1104 cases in a prospective study of 130544 men in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Int J Cancer 2004; 109: 119-124.
30. Giovannucci E, Rimm EB, Liu Y et al. A prospective study of cruciferous vegetables and prostate cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2003; 12: 1403- 1409.
31. Garikapaty VP, Ashok BT, Tadi K et al. Synthetic dimer of indole-3-carbinol: Second generation diet derived anti-cancer agent in hormone sensitive prostate cancer. Prostate 2006; 66: 453-462.
32. Hou Z, Lambert JD, Chin KV et al. Effects of tea polyphenols on signal transduction pathways related to cancer chemoprevention. Mutat Res 2004; 555: 3-19.
33. Heinonen OP, Albanes D, Virtamo J et al. Prostate cancer and supplementation with alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene: incidence and mortality in a controlled trial. J Natl Cancer Inst 1998; 90: 440-446.
34. Chan JM, Stampfer MJ, Ma J et al. Supplemental vitamin E intake and prostate cancer risk in a large cohort of men in the United States. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 1999; 8: 893-899.
35. Helzlsouer KJ, Huang HY, Alberg AJ et al. Association between alpha-tocopherol, gamma-tocopherol, selenium, and subsequent prostate cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 2000; 92: 2018-2023.
36. Li H, Stampfer MJ, Giovannucci EL et al. A prospective study of plasma selenium levels and prostate cancer risk. J Natl Cancer Inst 2004; 96: 696-703.
37. Duffield-Lillico AJ, Dalkin BL, Reid ME et al. Selenium supplementation, baseline plasma selenium status and incidence of prostate cancer: an analysis of the complete treatment period of the Nutritional Prevention of Cancer Trial. BJU Int 2003; 91: 608-612.
38. Christensen D. Soy and cancer: seeds of answers, but no fruit. J Natl Cancer Inst 2005; 97: 1494-1495.
39. McCann MJ, Gill CI, McGlynn H et al. Role of mammalian lignans in the prevention and treatment of prostate cancer. Nutr Cancer 2005; 52: 1-14.
40. Wikstrom P, Bylund A, Zhang JX et al. Rye bran diet increases epithelial cell apoptosis and decreases epithelial cell volume in TRAMP (transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate) tumors. Nutr Cancer 2005; 53: 111-116.
41. Webb AL, McCullough ML. Dietary lignans: potential role in cancer prevention. Nutr Cancer 2005; 51: 117-131.
42. Hedelin M, Klint A, Chang ET et al. Dietary phytoestrogen, serum enterolactone and risk of prostate cancer. Cancer Causes Control 2006; 17: 169-180
43. Terry P, Lichtenstein P, Feychting M et al. Fatty fish consumption and risk of prostate cancer. Lancet 2001; 357: 1764-1766.
44. Schwartz GG. Vitamin D and the epidemiology of prostate cancer. Semin Dial 2005; 18: 276-289.
45. Chan JM, Holick CN, Leitzmann MF et al. Diet after diagnosis and the risk of prostate cancer progression, recurrence, and death (United States). Cancer Causes Control 2006; 17: 199-208.
46. Meyer F, Bairati I, Shadmani R et al. Dietary fat and prostate cancer survival. Cancer Causes Control 1999; 10: 245-251.
47. Wiygul JB, Evans BR, Peterson BL et al. Supplement use among men with prostate cancer. Urology 2005; 66: 161-166.
48. Sheriff SK, Shohara RA, Dumican SB et al. Lifestyle correlates of health perception and treatment satisfaction in a clinical cohort of men with prostate cancer. Clin Prostate Cancer 2005; 3: 239- 245.
49. Ornish D, Weidner G, Fair WR et al. Intensive lifestyle changes may affect the progression of prostate cancer. J Urol 2005; 174: 1065-1070.
50. Dunn-Emke SR, Weidner G, Pettengill EB et al. Nutrient adequacy of a very low-fat vegan diet. J Am Diet Assoc 2005; 105: 1442-1446.