Holocentric chromosomes


Autoři: Mauro Mandrioli aff001;  Gian Carlo Manicardi aff001
Působiště autorů: Dipartimento di Scienze della Vita, Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Modena, Italy aff001
Vyšlo v časopise: Holocentric chromosomes. PLoS Genet 16(7): e32767. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1008918
Kategorie: Topic Page
doi: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1008918

Souhrn

Holocentric chromosomes possess multiple kinetochores along their length rather than the single centromere typical of other chromosomes [1]. They have been described for the first time in cytogenetic experiments dating from 1935 and, since this first observation, the term holocentric chromosome has referred to chromosomes that: i. lack the primary constriction corresponding to centromere observed in monocentric chromosomes [2]; ii. possess multiple kinetochores dispersed along the chromosomal axis so that microtubules bind to chromosomes along their entire length and move broadside to the pole from the metaphase plate [3]. These chromosomes are also termed holokinetic, because, during cell division, chromatids move apart in parallel and do not form the classical V-shaped figures typical of monocentric chromosomes [46]. Holocentric chromosomes evolved several times during both animal and plant evolution and are currently reported in about eight hundred diverse species, including plants, insects, arachnids and nematodes [7,8]. As a consequence of their diffuse kinetochores, holocentric chromosomes may stabilize chromosomal fragments favouring karyotype rearrangements [9,10]. However, holocentric chromosome may also present limitations to crossing over causing a restriction of the number of chiasma in bivalents [11] and may cause a restructuring of meiotic divisions resulting in an inverted meiosis [12].

Klíčová slova:

Caenorhabditis elegans – Centromeres – Evolutionary genetics – Chromatids – Chromosome structure and function – Karyotypes – Meiosis – Moths and butterflies


Zdroje

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