1. Aho, OM, Lehenkari, P., Ristiniemi, J. et al. The mechanism of action of induced membranes in bone repair. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2013, 95, 597–604.
2. Amr, SM, El-Mofty, AO, Amin SN. Anterior versus posterior approach in reconstruction of infected nonunion of the tibia using the vascularized fibular graft: potentialities and limitations. Microsurgery. 2002, 22, 91–107.
3. Bhandari, M., Fong, K., Sprague, S. et al. Variability in the definition and perceived causes of delayed unions and nonunions: a crosssectional, multinational survey of orthopaedic surgeons. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2012, 94, e1091–1096.
4. Bhandari, M., Guyatt, GH, Swiontkowski, MF. et al. A lack of consensus in the assessment of fracture healing among orthopaedic surgeons. J Orthop Trauma. 2002, 16, 562–566.
5. Bjerkan, G., Witso, E., Bergh, K. Sonication is superior to scraping for retrieval of bacteria in biofilm on titanium and steel surfaces in vitro. Acta Orthop. 2009, 80, 245–250.
6. Blum, AL., BongioVanni, JC, Morgan, SJ. et al. Complications associated with distraction osteogenesis for infected nonunion of the femoral shaft in the presence of a bone defect: a retrospective series. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 2010, 92, 565–570.
7. Brinker, MR, O‘Connor, DP, Monla, YT. et al. Metabolic and endocrine abnormalities in patients with nonunions. J Orthop Trauma. 2007, 21, 557–570.
8. Costerton, JW, Stewart, PS, Greenberg, EP. Bacterial biofilms: a common cause of persistent infections. Science. 1999, 284, 1318–1322.
9. Emami, A., Mjöberg, B., Larsson, S. Infected tibial nonunion. Good results after open cancellous bone grafting in 37 cases. Acta Orthop Scand. 1995, 66, 447–451.
10. Ekkernkamp, A., Muhr, G., Josten, C. Die infizierte Pseudarthrose. Unfallchirurg. 1996, 99, 914–924.
11. Giannoudis, PV, Einhorn, TA, Marsh, D. Fracture healing: the diamond concept. Injury. 2007, 38, S3–6.
12. Giannoudis, VP, Faour, O., Goff, T. et al. Masquelet technice for the treatment of bone defects: Tips-triks and future directions. Injury Int J Care Injured. 2011, 42, 591–598.
13. Goff, TA, Kanakaris, NK. Management of infected non-union of the proximal femur: a combination of therapeutic techniques. Injury. 2014, 45, 2101–2105.
14. Gordon, L., Chiu, EJ. Treatment of infected non-unions and segmental defects of the tibia with staged microvascular muscle transplantation and bonegrafting. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1988, 70, 377–378.
15. Gouron, R., Petit, L., Boudot, C. et al. Osteoclasts and their precursors are present in the induced-membrane during bone reconstruction using the Masquelet technique. J Tissue Eng Regen Med. 2014, 6, 12.
16. Hattori, Y., Doi, K., Sakamoto, S. et al. Pedicled vascularised fibular grafting in a flow-through manner for reconstruction of infected nonunion of the tibia with preservation of the peroneal artery: a case report. J Orthop Surg. 2015, 23, 111–115.
17. Hertel, R., Gerber, A., Schlegel, U. et al. Cancellous bone graft for skeletal reconstruction: muscular versus periosteal bed—preliminary report. Injury. 1994, 25, A59–A70.
18. Jain, AK, Sinha, S. Infected nonunion of the long bones. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2005, 25, 57–65.
19. Jiang, N., Qin, CH., Ma, YF. et al. Possibility of one-stage surgery to reconstruct bone defects using the modified Masquelet technique with degradable calcium sulfate as a cement spacer: A case report and hypothesis. Biomed Rep. 2016, 3, 374–378.
20. Krappinger, D., Lindtner, RA, Zegg, M. et al. Masquelet technique for the treatment of large dia- and metaphyseal bone defects. Oper Orthop Traumatol. 2015, 27, 357–368.
21. Klemm, K. Treatment of infected pseudarthrosis of the femur and tibia with an interlocking nail. Clin Orthop Rel Res. 1986, 212, 174–181.
22. Lichte, P., Pape, HC, Pufe, T. et al. Scaffolds for bone healing: Concepts, materials and evidence. Injury Int J Care Injured. 2011, 42, 569–573.
23. Maini, L., Chadha, M., Vishwanath, J. et al. The Ilizarov method in infected nonunion of fractures. Injury. 2000, 31, 509–517.
24. Masquelet, AC. Muscle reconstruction in reconstructive surgery: soft tissue repair and long bone reconstruction. Langenbeck’s Archives of Surgery. 2003, 388, 344–346.
25. Masquelet, AC. Induced Membrane Technique: Pearls and Pitfalls. J Orthop Trauma. 2017, 31, 21–22.
26. Masquelet, AC, Benko, PE, Mathevon, H. et al. French Society of Orthopaedics and Traumatic Surgery (SoFCOT). Harvest of cortico-cancellous intramedullary femoral bone graft using the Reamer-Irrigator-Aspirator (RIA). Orthop Traumatol Surg Res. 2012 2, 227–232.
27. Masquelet, AC, Fitoussi, F., Begue, T. et al. Reconstruction of the long bones by the induced membrane and spongy autograft. Ann Chir Plast Esthet. 2000, 45, 346–353.
28. Masquelet, AC, Begue, T. The concept of induced membrane for reconstruction of long bone defects. Orthopedic Clinics of North America. 2010, 1, 27–37.
29. Maurer, RC, Dillin, L. Multistaged surgical management of posttraumatic segmental tibial bone loss. Clin Orthop. 1987, 216, 162–170.
30. McCall, TA, Brokaw, DS, Jelen, BA. Treatment of large segmental bone defects with reamer-irrigator-aspirator bone graft: technique and case series. Orthopedic Clinics of North America. 2010, 1, 63–73.
31. Moore, JR, Weiland, AJ. Free vascularized bone and muscle flaps for osteomyelitis. Orthopedics. 1986, 9, 819–824.
32. Olesen, UK, Eckardt, H., Bosemark, P. et al. The Masquelet technique of induced membrane for healing of bone defects. A review of 8 cases. Injury. 2015, 46, S44–47.
33. Pountos, I., Georgouli, T., Pneumaticos, S. et al. Fracture non-union: Can biomarkers predict outcome? Injury. 2013, 12, 1725–1732.
34. Scholz, AO, Gehrmann, S., Glombitza, M. et al. Reconstruction of septic diaphyseal bone defects with the induced membrane technique. Injury. 2015, 4, S121–124.
35. Schottel, PC, Muthusamy, S., Rozbruch, SR. Distal tibial periarticular nonunions: ankle salvage with bone transport. J Orthop Trauma. 2014, 28, e146–152.
36. Schottle, PB, Werner, CM, Dumont, CE. Two-stage reconstruction with free vascularized soft tissue transfer and conventional bone graft for infected nonunions of the tibia: 6 patients followed for 1.5 to 5 years. Acta Orthop. 2005, 76, 878–883.
37. Stafford, PR, Norris, BL. Reamer-irrigator-aspirator bone graft and bi Masquelet technique for segmental bone defect nonunions: a review of 25 cases. Injury. 2010, 2, S72–77.
38. Stradiotti, P., Curti, A., Castellazzi, G. et al. Metal-related artifacts in instrumented spine. Techniques for reducing artifacts in CT and MRI: state of the art. Eur Spine J. 2009, 18, 102–108.
39. Struijs, PA, Poolman, RW, Bhandari, M. Infected Nonunion of the Long Bones. J Orthop Trauma. 2007, 21, 507–551.
40. Wagels, M., Rowe, D., Senewiratne, S. et al. Theile DR.Soft tissue reconstruction after compound tibial fracture: 235 cases over 12 years. J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg. 2015, 68, 1276–1285.
41. Weiland, AJ, Moore, JR, Daniel, RK. The efficacy of free tissue transfer in the treatment of osteomyelitis. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1984, 66, 181–193.
42. Wu, CC. Single-stage surgical treatment of infected nonunion of the distal tibia. J Orthop Trauma. 2011, 3, 156–161.
43. Yazar, S., Lin, CH., Wei, FC. One-stage reconstruction of composite bone and soft-tissue defects in traumatic lower extremities. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2004, 6, 1457–1466.