1. ShytajIL, NorelliS, ChirulloB, Della CorteA, CollinsM, et al. (2012) A highly intensified ART regimen induces long-term viral suppression and restriction of the viral reservoir in a simian AIDS model. PLoS Pathog 8: e1002774 doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1002774.
2. HaaseAT (2010) Targeting early infection to prevent HIV-1 mucosal transmission. Nature 464: 217–223.
3. LacknerAA, VeazeyRS (2007) Current concepts in AIDS pathogenesis: insights from the SIV/macaque model. Annu Rev Med 58: 461–476.
4. VeazeyRS, DeMariaM, ChalifouxLV, ShvetzDE, PauleyDR, et al. (1998) Gastrointestinal tract as a major site of CD4+ T cell depletion and viral replication in SIV infection. Science 280: 427–431.
5. Smit-McBrideZ, MattapallilJJ, McChesneyM, FerrickD, DandekarS (1998) Gastrointestinal T lymphocytes retain high potential for cytokine responses but have severe CD4(+) T-cell depletion at all stages of simian immunodeficiency virus infection compared to peripheral lymphocytes. J Virol 72: 6646–6656.
6. LiQ, DuanL, EstesJD, MaZM, RourkeT, et al. (2005) Peak SIV replication in resting memory CD4+ T cells depletes gut lamina propria CD4+ T cells. Nature 434: 1148–1152.
7. ChenHY, Di MascioM, PerelsonAS, HoDD, ZhangL (2007) Determination of virus burst size in vivo using a single-cycle SIV in rhesus macaques. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104: 19079–19084.
8. PickerLJ, HagenSI, LumR, Reed-InderbitzinEF, DalyLM, et al. (2004) Insufficient production and tissue delivery of CD4+ memory T cells in rapidly progressive simian immunodeficiency virus infection. J Exp Med 200: 1299–1314.
9. PickerLJ, HansenSG, LifsonJD (2012) New paradigms for HIV/AIDS vaccine development. Annu Rev Med 63: 95–111.
10. ShedlockDJ, SilvestriG, WeinerDB (2009) Monkeying around with HIV vaccines: using rhesus macaques to define ‘gatekeepers’ for clinical trials. Nat Rev Immunol 9: 717–728.
11. WatkinsDI, BurtonDR, KallasEG, MooreJP, KoffWC (2008) Nonhuman primate models and the failure of the Merck HIV-1 vaccine in humans. Nat Med 14: 617–621.
12. HeneineW, KashubaA (2012) HIV Prevention by Oral Preexposure Prophylaxis. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med 2: a007419.
13. AmbroseZ, KewalRamaniVN, BieniaszPD, HatziioannouT (2007) HIV/AIDS: in search of an animal model. Trends Biotechnol 25: 333–337.
14. DeereJD, SchinaziRF, NorthTW (2011) Simian immunodeficiency virus macaque models of HIV latency. Curr Opin HIV AIDS 6: 57–61.
15. ClementsJE, GamaL, GrahamDR, MankowskiJL, ZinkMC (2011) A simian immunodeficiency virus macaque model of highly active antiretroviral treatment: viral latency in the periphery and the central nervous system. Curr Opin HIV AIDS 6: 37–42.
16. KinmanL, BrodieSJ, TsaiCC, BuiT, LarsenK, et al. (2003) Lipid-drug association enhanced HIV-1 protease inhibitor indinavir localization in lymphoid tissues and viral load reduction: a proof of concept study in HIV-2287-infected macaques. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 34: 387–397.
17. KirchhoffF (2010) Immune evasion and counteraction of restriction factors by HIV-1 and other primate lentiviruses. Cell Host Microbe 8: 55–67.
18. StremlauM, OwensCM, PerronMJ, KiesslingM, AutissierP, et al. (2004) The cytoplasmic body component TRIM5alpha restricts HIV-1 infection in Old World monkeys. Nature 427: 848–853.
19. DesrosiersRC (2004) Prospects for an AIDS vaccine. Nat Med 10: 221–223.
20. VandeWoudeS, ApetreiC (2006) Going wild: lessons from naturally occurring T-lymphotropic lentiviruses. Clin Microbiol Rev 19: 728–762.
21. Van RompayKK (2012) The use of nonhuman primate models of HIV infection for the evaluation of antiviral strategies. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 28: 16–35.
22. Van RompayKK, CherringtonJM, MarthasML, BerardiCJ, MulatoAS, et al. (1996) 9-[2-(Phosphonomethoxy)propyl]adenine therapy of established simian immunodeficiency virus infection in infant rhesus macaques. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 40: 2586–2591.
23. LewisMG, NorelliS, CollinsM, BarrecaML, IraciN, et al. (2010) Response of a simian immunodeficiency virus (SIVmac251) to raltegravir: a basis for a new treatment for simian AIDS and an animal model for studying lentiviral persistence during antiretroviral therapy. Retrovirology 7: 21.
24. LifsonJD, RossioJL, ArnaoutR, LiL, ParksTL, et al. (2000) Containment of simian immunodeficiency virus infection: cellular immune responses and protection from rechallenge following transient postinoculation antiretroviral treatment. J Virol 74: 2584–2593.
25. NorthTW, Van RompayKK, HigginsJ, MatthewsTB, WadfordDA, et al. (2005) Suppression of virus load by highly active antiretroviral therapy in rhesus macaques infected with a recombinant simian immunodeficiency virus containing reverse transcriptase from human immunodeficiency virus type 1. J Virol 79: 7349–7354.
26. KearneyM, SpindlerJ, ShaoW, MaldarelliF, PalmerS, et al. (2011) Genetic diversity of simian immunodeficiency virus encoding HIV-1 reverse transcriptase persists in macaques despite antiretroviral therapy. J Virol 85: 1067–1076.
27. AmbroseZ, PalmerS, BoltzVF, KearneyM, LarsenK, et al. (2007) Suppression of viremia and evolution of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 drug resistance in a macaque model for antiretroviral therapy. J Virol 81: 12145–12155.
28. AllersK, HutterG, HofmannJ, LoddenkemperC, RiegerK, et al. (2011) Evidence for the cure of HIV infection by CCR5Delta32/Delta32 stem cell transplantation. Blood 117: 2791–2799.
29. LingB, VeazeyRS, LuckayA, PenedoC, XuK, et al. (2002) SIV(mac) pathogenesis in rhesus macaques of Chinese and Indian origin compared with primary HIV infections in humans. AIDS 16: 1489–1496.
30. PandreaI, GaufinT, GautamR, KristoffJ, MandellD, et al. (2011) Functional cure of SIVagm infection in rhesus macaques results in complete recovery of CD4+ T cells and is reverted by CD8+ cell depletion. PLoS Pathog 7: e1002170 doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1002170.
31. DentonPW, GarciaJV (2009) Novel humanized murine models for HIV research. Curr HIV/AIDS Rep 6: 13–19.
32. HilldorferBB, CilloAR, BessonGJ, BedisonMA, MellorsJW (2012) New tools for quantifying HIV-1 reservoirs: plasma RNA single copy assays and beyond. Curr HIV/AIDS Rep 9: 91–100.
33. PlanellesV, WolschendorfF, KutschO (2011) Facts and fiction: cellular models for high throughput screening for HIV-1 reactivating drugs. Curr HIV Res 9: 568–578.
34. BosqueA, FamigliettiM, WeyrichAS, GoulstonC, PlanellesV (2011) Homeostatic proliferation fails to efficiently reactivate HIV-1 latently infected central memory CD4+ T cells. PLoS Pathog 7: e1002288 doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1002288.
35. BosqueA, PlanellesV (2009) Induction of HIV-1 latency and reactivation in primary memory CD4+ T cells. Blood 113: 58–65.
36. TronoD, Van LintC, RouziouxC, VerdinE, Barre-SinoussiF, et al. (2010) HIV persistence and the prospect of long-term drug-free remissions for HIV-infected individuals. Science 329: 174–180.
37. Dyavar ShettyRD, VeluV, TitanjiK, BosingerSE, FreemanGJ, et al. (2012) PD-1 blockade during chronic SIV infection reduces hyperimmune activation and microbial translocation in rhesus macaques. J Clin Invest 122: 1712–1716.
38. VeluV, TitanjiK, ZhuB, HusainS, PladevegaA, et al. (2009) Enhancing SIV-specific immunity in vivo by PD-1 blockade. Nature 458: 206–210.