1. Dearnaley DP, Sydes MR, Graham JD, et al. Escalated-dose versus standard-dose conformal radiotherapy in prostate cancer: first results from the MRC RT01 randomised controlled trial. Lancet Oncol 2007; 8(6): 475–487.
2. Peeters ST, Heemsbergen WD, Koper PC, et al. Dose-response in radiotherapy for localized prostate cancer: results of the Dutch multicenter randomized phase III trial comparing 68 Gy of radiotherapy with 78 Gy. J Clin Oncol 2006; 24(13): 1990–1996.
3. Pollack A, Zagars GK, Smith LG, et al. Preliminary results of a randomized radiotherapy dose-escalation study comparing 70 Gy with 78 Gy for prostate cancer. J Clin Oncol 2000; 18(23): 3904–3911.
4. Zelefsky MJ, Leibel SA, Gaudin PB, et al. Dose escalation with three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy affects the outcome in prostate cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 1998; 41(3): 491–500.
5. Zietman AL, DeSilvio ML, Slater JD, et al. Comparison of conventional-dose vs high-dose conformal radiation therapy in clinically localized adenocarcinoma of the prostate: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2005; 294(10): 1233–1239.
6. Chism DB, Horwitz EM, Hanlon AL, et al. Late morbidity profiles in prostate cancer patients treated to 79–84 Gy by a simple four-field coplanar beam arrangement. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2003; 55(1): 71–77.
7. Lawton CA, Won M, Pilepich MV, et al. Long-term treatment sequelae following external beam irradiation for adenocarcinoma of the prostate: analysis of RTOG studies 7506 and 7706. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 1991; 21(4): 935–939.
8. Zelefsky MJ, Chan H, Hunt M, et al. Long-term outcome of high dose intensity modulated radiation therapy for patients with clinically localized prostate cancer. J Urol 2006; 176(4 Pt 1): 1415–1419.
9. Cahlon O, Zelefsky MJ, Shippy A, et al. Ultra-high dose (86.4 Gy) IMRT for localized prostate cancer: toxicity and biochemical outcomes. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2008; 71(2): 330–337.
10. Peeters ST, Hoogeman MS, Heemsbergen WD, et al. Rectal bleeding, fecal incontinence, and high stool frequency after conformal radiotherapy for prostate cancer: normal tissue complication probability modeling. Int Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2006; 66(1): 11–19.
11. Heemsbergen WD, Hoogeman MS, Hart GA, et al. Gastrointestinal toxicity and its relation to dose distributions in the anorectal region of prostate cancer patients treated with radiotherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2005; 61(4): 1011–1018.
12. Valicenti R, Lu J, Pilepich M, et al. Survival advantage from higher-dose radiation therapy for clinically localized prostate cancer treated on the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group trials. J Clin Oncol 2000; 18(14): 2740–2746.
13. Kuban DA, Tucker SL, Dong L, et al. Long-term results of the M. D. Anderson randomized dose-escalation trial for prostate cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2008; 70(1): 67–74.
14. Ryu JK, Winter K, Michalski JM, et al. Interim report of toxicity from 3D conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) for prostate cancer on 3DOG/RTOG 9406, level III (79.2 Gy). Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2002; 54(4): 1036–1046.
15. Sandhu AS, Zelefsky MJ, Lee HJ, et al. Long-term urinary toxicity after 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy for prostate cancer in patients with prior history of transurethral resection. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2000; 48(3): 643–647.
16. Jani AB, Su A, Correa D, et al. Comparison of late gastrointestinal and genitourinary toxicity of prostate cancer patients undergoing intensity modulated versus conventional radiotherapy using localized fields. Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis 2007; 10(1): 82–86.
17. Cahlon O, Hunt M, Zelefsky MJ. Intensity-modulated radiation therapy: supportive data for prostate cancer. Semin Radiat Oncol 2008; 18(1): 48–57.
18. Lips I, Dehnad H, Kruger AB, et al. Health-related quality of life in patients with locally advanced prostate cancer after 76 Gy intensity-modulated radiotherapy vs. 70 Gy conformal radiotherapy in a prospective and longitudinal study. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2007; 69(3): 656–661.
19. Vora SA, Wong WW, Schild SE, et al. Analysis of biochemical control and prognostic factors in patients treated with either low-dose threedimensional conformal radiation therapy or high-dose intensity-modulated radiotherapy for localized prostate cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2007; 68(4): 1053–1058.
20. Zelefsky MJ, Yamada Y, Fuks Z, et al. Long-term results of conformal radiotherapy for prostate cancer: impact of dose escalation on biochemical tumor control and distant metastases-free survival outcomes. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2008; 71(4): 1028–1033.
21. Yu JB, Soulos PR, Herrin J, Cramer LD, Potosky AL, Roberts KB, Gross CP. Proton versus intensity-modulated radiotherapy for prostate cancer: patterns of care and early toxicity. J Natl Cancer Inst 2013; 105(1): 25–32.
22. Macbeth FR, Williams MV. Proton therapy should be tested in randomized trials. J Clin Oncol 2008; 26(15): 2590–2591; author reply 2593–2596.
23. Slater JD, Rossi CJ Jr, Yonemoto LT, et al. Proton therapy for prostate cancer: the initial Loma Linda University experience. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2004; 59(2): 348–352.
24. Mouw KW, Trofimov A, Zietman AL, Efstathiou JA. Clinical controversies: proton therapy for prostate cancer. Semin Radiat Oncol. 2013; 23(2): 109–114.
25. www.astro.org, 2013
26. de Crevoisier R, Tucker SL, Dong L, et al. Increased risk of biochemical and local failure in patients with distended rectum on the planning CT for prostate cancer radiotherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2005; 62 (4): 965–973.
27. Balter JM, Sandler HM, Lam K, et al. Measurement of prostate movement over the course of routine radiotherapy using implanted markers. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 1995; 31(1): 113–118.
28. van Herk M, Bruce A, Kroes AP, et al. Quantification of organ motion during conformal radiotherapy of the prostate by three dimensional image registration. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 1995; 33(5): 1311–1320.
29. Langen KM, Pouliot J, Anezinos C, et al. Evaluation of ultrasound-based prostate localization for image-guided radiotherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2003; 57(3): 635–644.
30. Lattanzi J, McNeeley S, Pinover W, et al. A comparison of daily CT localization to a daily ultrasound-based system in prostate cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 1999; 43(4): 719–725.
31. Owen R, Kron T, Foroudi F, et al. Comparison of CT on rails with electronic portal imaging for positioning of prostate cancer patients with implanted fiducial markers. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2009; 74(3): 906–912.
32. Kupelian P, Willoughby T, Mahadevan A, et al. Multi-institutional clinical experience with the Calypso System in localization and continuous, realtime monitoring of the prostate gland during external radiotherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2007; 67(4): 1088–1098.
33. Zelefsky MJ, Kollmeier M, Cox B, et al. Improved clinical outcomes with high-dose image guided radiotherapy compared with non-IGRT for the treatment of clinically localized prostate cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2012; 84(1): 125–129.
34. Nag S, Beyer D, Friedland J, et al. American Brachytherapy Society (ABS) recommendations for transperineal permanent brachytherapy of prostate cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 1999; 44(4): 789–799.
35. Zelefsky MJ, Hollister T, Raben A, et al. Five-year biochemical outcome and toxicity with transperineal CT-planned permanent I-125 prostate implantation for patients with localized prostate cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2000; 47(5): 1261–1266.
36. Stone NN, Stock RG. Prostate brachytherapy in patients with prostate volumes ≥ 50 cm3: dosimetic analysis of implant quality. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2000; 46(5): 1199–1204.
37. Terk MD, Stock RG, Stone NN. Identification of patients at increased risk for prolonged urinary retention following radioactive seed implantation of the prostate. J Urol 1998; 160(4): 1379–1382.
38. Merrick GS, Butler WM, Lief JH, et al. Temporal resolution of urinary morbidity following prostate brachytherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2000; 47(1): 121–128.
39. Landis D, Wallner K, Locke J, et al. Late urinary function after prostate brachytherapy. Brachytherapy 2002; 1(1): 21–26.
40. Stock RG, Cesaretti JA, Stone NN. Disease-specific survival following the brachytherapy management of prostate cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2006; 64(3): 810–816.
41. Khaksar SJ, Laing RW, Henderson A, et al. Biochemical (prostatespecific antigen) relapse-free survival and toxicity after 125I low-dose-rate prostate brachytherapy. BJU Int 2006; 98(6): 1210–1215.
42. Potters L, Morgenstern C, Calugaru E, et al. 12-year outcomes following permanent prostate brachytherapy in patients with clinically localized prostate cancer. J Urol 2005; 173(5): 1562–1566.
43. Lawton CA, DeSilvio M, Lee WR, et al. Results of a phase II trial of transrectal ultrasound-guided permanent radioactive implantation of the prostate for definitive management of localized adenocarcinoma of the prostate (radiation therapy oncology group 98-05). Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2007; 67(1): 39–47.
44. Zelefsky MJ, Kuban DA, Levy LB, et al. Multi-institutional analysis of long-term outcome for stages T1-T2 prostate cancer treated with permanent seed implantation. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2007; 67(2): 327–333.
45. Critz FA, Williams WH, Levinson AK, et al. Simultaneous irradiation for prostate cancer: intermediate results with modern techniques. J Urol 2000; 164(3 Pt 1): 738–741; discussion 741–743.
46. Sylvester JE, Grimm PD, Blasko JC, et al. 15-Year biochemical relapse free survival in clinical Stage T1-T3 prostate cancer following combined external beam radiotherapy and brachytherapy; Seattle experience. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2007; 67(1): 57–64.
47. Stone NN, Potters L, Davis BJ, et al. Multicenter analysis of effect of high biologic effective dose on biochemical failure and survival outcomes in patients with Gleason score 7–10 prostate cancer treated with permanent prostate brachytherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2009; 73(2): 341–346.
48. Taira AV, Merrick GS, Galbreath RW, et al. Natural history of clinically staged low- and intermediate-risk prostate cancer treated with monotherapeutic permanent interstitial brachytherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2010; 76(2): 349–354.
49. Demanes DJ, Gilhezan M, Schour L, et al. High dose rate brachytherapy (HDR-BT) as monotherapy for favorable prostate cancer: excellent 5-year control rates and low toxicity. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2007; 69(3 Suppl 1): S83.
50. Rogers L, Hayes, J, Childs L, et al. High Dose Rate Brachytherapy as Monotherapy for Clinically Localized Prostate Cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2006; 66(3 Suppl 1): S377–S378.
51. Mark RJ, Anderson PJ, Akins M, et al. Interstitial high-dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy as monotherapy for stage T1 and T2 prostate cancer: 8-year results in 278 patients. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2009; 75(3 suppl 1): S156.
52. Galalae RM, Martinez A, Mate T, et al. Long-term outcome by risk factors using conformal high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDR-BT) boost with or without neoadjuvant androgen suppression for localized prostate cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2004; 58(4): 1048–1055.
53. Demanes DJ, Rodriguez RR, Schour L, et al. High-dose-rate intensity-modulated brachytherapy with external beam radiotherapy for prostate cancer: California endocurietherapy‘s 10-year results. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2005; 61(5): 1306–1316.
54. Bachand F, Martin AG, Beaulieu L, et al. An eight-year experience of HDR brachytherapy boost for localized prostate cancer: biopsy and PSA outcome. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2009; 73(3): 679–684.
55. Galalae RM, Kovács G, Schultze J, et al. Long-term outcome after elective irradiation of the pelvic lymphatics and local dose escalation using high-dose-rate brachytherapy for locally advanced prostate cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2002; 52(1): 81–90.
56. Swanson TA, Martinez AA, Kestin LL, et al. Improved 10-year outcomes for prostate cancer patients with Gleason 8–10 treated with intensity modulated high dose rate brachytherapy boost in the PSA era. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2007; 69(3 suppl 1): S84–S85.
57. Timmerman R, Papiez L, Suntharalingam M. Extracranial stereotactic radiation delivery: expansion of technology beyond the brain. Technol Cancer Res Treat 2003; 2(2): 153–160.
58. Kupelian PA, Willoughby TR, Reddy CA, et al. Hypofractionated intensity-modulated radiotherapy (70 Gy at 2.5 Gy per fraction) for localized prostate cancer: Cleveland Clinic experience. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2007; 68(5): 1424–1430.
59. Lloyd-Davies RW, Collins CD, Swan AV. Carcinoma of prostate treated by radical external beam radiotherapy using hypofractionation. Twenty-two years‘ experience (1962–1984). Urology. 1990; 36(2): 107–111.
60. Madsen BL, Hsi RA, Pham HT, et al. Stereotactic hypofractionated accurate radiotherapy of the prostate (SHARP), 33.5 Gy in five fractions for localized disease: first clinical trial results. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2007; 67(4): 1099–1105.
61. King CR, Brooks JD, Gill H, et al. Long-term outcomes from a prospective trial of stereotactic body radiotherapy for low-risk prostate cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2012; 82(2): 877–882.
62. www.astro.org, 2011