PHYSIOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY OF SKIN AFTER BURNS ANDDERANGEMENT OF GENE EXPRESSION


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Autoři: A. Březáková
Působiště autorů: Burn Medicine Clinic, 3rd Medical Faculty of the Charles University and Faculty Hospital of Královské Vinohrady, Prague, Czech Republic
Vyšlo v časopise: Prakt. Lék. 1999; (2): 127-132
Kategorie: Články

Souhrn

Temperature and time are two basic factors influencing the effect of heat on the human organism. The degree of resulting damagealso depends on the anatomical organization of the skin and hypodermis. Sweat glands and the vascular supply, with blood flowing incorium and hypodermis, act as an effective thermo-regulators for the deeper structures.Under each fully developed necrosis there is a problematic transient area, also known as a zone of blood stasis, which correspondsto the partial damage caused by heat conducted into deeper structures. In this area during the first 3 days cells are selected accordingto the resistance to the thermal trauma.The basis genetic information of cells is very resistant, but disorders develop on the genetic expression level. Cells – mainly fibroblasts– which survive the first selection are damaged by the thermal injury to varying degrees and often cause other complications.During synthesis of transcripts of RNA from DNA chains an excessive amount of transcripts can develop, subjecting the receptor toinformation about the loss of skin firmness in defective feedback to the CNS, blocked by fixed trauma emotion. The status is accompaniedby swelling, lymphatic stasis, capillary stasis, changes of the local pH and others. During repair facilitated by inflammatoryprocess, excessive amount of collagen is created, as has repeatedly been proved in experiments. The problem can be partially solvedby early compression, which limits the amount of impulses about insufficient firmness of the skin, and improves the circulation, whilereducing edema, normalizes pH and optimizes production of transcripts.RNA polymerase lacks the ability to correct perfectly and in fact frequently makes mistakes, even under completely normal physiologicalconditions. If the pH is wrong, it can make even more mistakes and produce pathological collagen in excessive amounts.RNA is not intended to preserve information permanently, and after a certain time it degrades. The onset of this degradation is determinedby the cell as well as the amount of created proteins. If RNA is not degraded on time, overproduction of protein and collagen isa natural consequence of the developed defect.Messenger RNA (mRNA) directs the creation of proteins. In case that it is not properly cut in the cellular nucleus, qualitative and quantitativeerrors in transcription into the protein develop.The non-information RNA takes an enzyme part and plays a role during the transfer of RNA into the protein. It does not have the correctionability.Transfer tRNA chooses appropriately amino acids and places them into the growing protein chain. At the same time, it can make errorsand interchange amino acids.

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