Chromatin dynamics and the transcriptional competence of HSV-1 genomes during lytic infections


Autoři: MiYao Hu aff001;  Daniel P. Depledge aff003;  Esteban Flores Cortes aff002;  Judith Breuer aff003;  Luis M. Schang aff001
Působiště autorů: University of Alberta, Department of Biochemistry, Edmonton, AB, Canada aff001;  Cornell University, College of Veterinary Medicine, Baker institute for animal health, Ithaca, NY, United States of America aff002;  6401Division of Infection and Immunity, University College London, London, United Kingdom aff003
Vyšlo v časopise: Chromatin dynamics and the transcriptional competence of HSV-1 genomes during lytic infections. PLoS Pathog 15(11): e32767. doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1008076
Kategorie: Research Article
doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1008076

Souhrn

During latent infections with herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1), viral transcription is restricted and the genomes are mostly maintained in silenced chromatin, whereas in lytically infected cells all viral genes are transcribed and the genomes are dynamically chromatinized. Histones in the viral chromatin bear markers of silenced chromatin at early times in lytic infection or of active transcription at later times. The virion protein VP16 activates transcription of the immediate-early (IE) genes by recruiting transcription activators and chromatin remodelers to their promoters. Two IE proteins, ICP0 and ICP4 which modulate chromatin epigenetics, then activate transcription of early and late genes. Although chromatin is involved in the mechanism of activation of HSV- transcription, its precise role is not entirely understood. In the cellular genome, chromatin dynamics often modulate transcription competence whereas promoter-specific transcription factors determine transcription activity. Here, biophysical fractionation of serially digested HSV-1 chromatin followed by short-read deep sequencing indicates that nuclear HSV-1 DNA has different biophysical properties than protein-free or encapsidated HSV-1 DNA. The entire HSV-1 genomes in infected cells were equally accessible. The accessibility of transcribed or non-transcribed genes under any given condition did not differ, and each gene was entirely sampled in both the most and least accessible chromatin. However, HSV-1 genomes fractionated differently under conditions of generalized or restricted transcription. Approximately 1/3 of the HSV-1 DNA including fully sampled genes resolved to the most accessible chromatin when HSV-1 transcription was active, but such enrichment was reduced to only 3% under conditions of restricted HSV-1 transcription. Short sequences of restricted accessibility separated genes with different transcription levels. Chromatin dynamics thus provide a first level of regulation on HSV-1 transcription, dictating the transcriptional competency of the genomes during lytic infections, whereas the transcription of individual genes is then most likely activated by specific transcription factors. Moreover, genes transcribed to different levels are separated by short sequences with limited accessibility.

Klíčová slova:

DNA – DNA transcription – Functional genomics – Herpes simplex virus-1 – Histones – Chromatin – Sequence motif analysis – Transcriptional control


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