Serially assessed bisphenol A and phthalate exposure and association with kidney function in children with chronic kidney disease in the US and Canada: A longitudinal cohort study

Autoři: Melanie H. Jacobson aff001;  Yinxiang Wu aff002;  Mengling Liu aff002;  Teresa M. Attina aff001;  Mrudula Naidu aff001;  Rajendiran Karthikraj aff004;  Kurunthachalam Kannan aff001;  Bradley A. Warady aff006;  Susan Furth aff007;  Suzanne Vento aff008;  Howard Trachtman aff008;  Leonardo Trasande aff001
Působiště autorů: Division of Environmental Pediatrics, Department of Pediatrics, NYU Langone Medical Center, New York, New York, United States of America aff001;  Department of Population Health, NYU Langone Medical Center, New York, New York, United States of America aff002;  Department of Environmental Medicine, NYU Langone Medical Center, New York, New York, United States of America aff003;  Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany, New York, United States of America aff004;  Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, State University of New York at Albany, Albany, New York, United States of America aff005;  Division of Nephrology, Department of Pediatrics, Children’s Mercy Kansas City, Kansas City, Missouri, United States of America aff006;  Division of Nephrology, Department of Pediatrics, Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America aff007;  Division of Nephrology, Department of Pediatrics, NYU Langone Medical Center, New York, New York, United States of America aff008;  Wagner Graduate School of Public Service, New York University, New York, New York, United States of America aff009;  School of Global Public Health, New York University, New York, New York, United States of America aff010
Vyšlo v časopise: Serially assessed bisphenol A and phthalate exposure and association with kidney function in children with chronic kidney disease in the US and Canada: A longitudinal cohort study. PLoS Med 17(10): e32767. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1003384
Kategorie: Research Article
doi: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1003384



Exposure to environmental chemicals may be a modifiable risk factor for progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of serially assessed exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) and phthalates on measures of kidney function, tubular injury, and oxidative stress over time in a cohort of children with CKD.

Methods and findings

Samples were collected between 2005 and 2015 from 618 children and adolescents enrolled in the Chronic Kidney Disease in Children study, an observational cohort study of pediatric CKD patients from the US and Canada. Most study participants were male (63.8%) and white (58.3%), and participants had a median age of 11.0 years (interquartile range 7.6 to 14.6) at the baseline visit. In urine samples collected serially over an average of 3.0 years (standard deviation [SD] 1.6), concentrations of BPA, phthalic acid (PA), and phthalate metabolites were measured as well as biomarkers of tubular injury (kidney injury molecule-1 [KIM-1] and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin [NGAL]) and oxidative stress (8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine [8-OHdG] and F2-isoprostane). Clinical renal function measures included estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), proteinuria, and blood pressure. Linear mixed models were fit to estimate the associations between urinary concentrations of 6 chemical exposure measures (i.e., BPA, PA, and 4 phthalate metabolite groups) and clinical renal outcomes and urinary concentrations of KIM-1, NGAL, 8-OHdG, and F2-isoprostane controlling for sex, age, race/ethnicity, glomerular status, birth weight, premature birth, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor use, angiotensin receptor blocker use, BMI z-score for age and sex, and urinary creatinine. Urinary concentrations of BPA, PA, and phthalate metabolites were positively associated with urinary KIM-1, NGAL, 8-OHdG, and F2-isoprostane levels over time. For example, a 1-SD increase in ∑di-n-octyl phthalate metabolites was associated with increases in NGAL (β = 0.13 [95% CI: 0.05, 0.21], p = 0.001), KIM-1 (β = 0.30 [95% CI: 0.21, 0.40], p < 0.001), 8-OHdG (β = 0.10 [95% CI: 0.06, 0.13], p < 0.001), and F2-isoprostane (β = 0.13 [95% CI: 0.01, 0.25], p = 0.04) over time. BPA and phthalate metabolites were not associated with eGFR, proteinuria, or blood pressure, but PA was associated with lower eGFR over time. For a 1-SD increase in ln-transformed PA, there was an average decrease in eGFR of 0.38 ml/min/1.73 m2 (95% CI: −0.75, −0.01; p = 0.04). Limitations of this study included utilization of spot urine samples for exposure assessment of non-persistent compounds and lack of specific information on potential sources of exposure.


Although BPA and phthalate metabolites were not associated with clinical renal endpoints such as eGFR or proteinuria, there was a consistent pattern of increased tubular injury and oxidative stress over time, which have been shown to affect renal function in the long term. This raises concerns about the potential for clinically significant changes in renal function in relation to exposure to common environmental toxicants at current levels.

Klíčová slova:

Biomarkers – Chronic kidney disease – Kidneys – Metabolites – Oxidative stress – Phthalates – Renal system – Urinary biomarkers


1. KDIGO 2012 clinical practice guideline for the evaluation and management of chronic kidney disease. Chapter 1: definition and classification of CKD. Kidney Int Suppl. 2013;3(1):19–62. doi: 10.1038/kisup.2012.64 25018975

2. Bowe B, Xie Y, Li T, Mokdad AH, Xian H, Yan Y, et al. Changes in the US burden of chronic kidney disease from 2002 to 2016: an analysis of the Global Burden of Disease Study. JAMA Netw Open. 2018;1(7):e184412. doi: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2018.4412 30646390

3. Harambat J, van Stralen KJ, Kim JJ, Tizard EJ. Epidemiology of chronic kidney disease in children. Pediatr Nephrol. 2012;27(3):363–73. doi: 10.1007/s00467-011-1939-1 21713524

4. Baum M. Overview of chronic kidney disease in children. Curr Opin Pediatr. 2010;22(2):158–60. doi: 10.1097/MOP.0b013e32833695cb 20299869

5. United States Renal Data System. 2013 USRDS annual data report: atlas of chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease in the United States. Bethesda: National Institutes of Health National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases; 2013.

6. Becherucci F, Roperto RM, Materassi M, Romagnani P. Chronic kidney disease in children. Clin Kidney J. 2016;9(4):583–91. doi: 10.1093/ckj/sfw047 27478602

7. Groothoff JW. Long-term outcomes of children with end-stage renal disease. Pediatr Nephrol. 2005;20(7):849–53. doi: 10.1007/s00467-005-1878-9 15834618

8. Ferris ME, Gipson DS, Kimmel PL, Eggers PW. Trends in treatment and outcomes of survival of adolescents initiating end-stage renal disease care in the United States of America. Pediatr Nephrol. 2006;21(7):1020–6. doi: 10.1007/s00467-006-0059-9

9. Mitsnefes MM, Laskin BL, Dahhou M, Zhang X, Foster BJ. Mortality risk among children initially treated with dialysis for end-stage kidney disease, 1990–2010. JAMA. 2013;309(18):1921–9. doi: 10.1001/jama.2013.4208 23645144

10. Wong H, Mylrea K, Feber J, Drukker A, Filler G. Prevalence of complications in children with chronic kidney disease according to KDOQI. Kidney Int. 2006;70(3):585–90. doi: 10.1038/ 16788689

11. Staples AO, Greenbaum LA, Smith JM, Gipson DS, Filler G, Warady BA, et al. Association between clinical risk factors and progression of chronic kidney disease in children. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2010;5(12):2172–9. doi: 10.2215/CJN.07851109 20813855

12. Warady BA, Abraham AG, Schwartz GJ, Wong CS, Munoz A, Betoko A, et al. Predictors of rapid progression of glomerular and nonglomerular kidney disease in children and adolescents: the Chronic Kidney Disease in Children (CKiD) cohort. Am J Kidney Dis. 2015;65(6):878–88. doi: 10.1053/j.ajkd.2015.01.008 25799137

13. Sullivan JB, Krieger GR. Clinical environmental health and toxic exposures. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2001.

14. Weidemann DK, Weaver VM, Fadrowski JJ. Toxic environmental exposures and kidney health in children. Pediatr Nephrol. 2016;31(11):2043–54. doi: 10.1007/s00467-015-3222-3 26458883

15. Trasande L, Attina TM, Trachtman H. Bisphenol A exposure is associated with low-grade urinary albumin excretion in children of the United States. Kidney Int. 2013;83(4):741–8. doi: 10.1038/ki.2012.422 23302717

16. Malits J, Attina TM, Karthikraj R, Kannan K, Naidu M, Furth S, et al. Renal function and exposure to Bisphenol A and phthalates in children with chronic kidney disease. Environ Res. 2018;167:575–82. doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2018.08.006 30172191

17. Kataria A, Trasande L, Trachtman H. The effects of environmental chemicals on renal function. Nat Rev Nephrol. 2015;11:610. doi: 10.1038/nrneph.2015.94 26100504

18. Bindhumol V, Chitra KC, Mathur PP. Bisphenol A induces reactive oxygen species generation in the liver of male rats. Toxicology. 2003;188(2):117–24. doi: 10.1016/S0300-483X(03)00056-8

19. Chitra KC, Latchoumycandane C, Mathur PP. Induction of oxidative stress by bisphenol A in the epididymal sperm of rats. Toxicology. 2003;185(1):119–27. doi: 10.1016/S0300-483X(02)00597-8

20. Wu M, Xu H, Shen Y, Qiu W, Yang M. Oxidative stress in zebrafish embryos induced by short-term exposure to bisphenol A, nonylphenol, and their mixture. Environm Toxicol Chem. 2011;30(10):2335–41. doi: 10.1002/etc.634 21805498

21. Hong Y-C, Park E-Y, Park M-S, Ko JA, Oh S-Y, Kim H, et al. Community level exposure to chemicals and oxidative stress in adult population. Toxicol Lett. 2009;184(2):139–44. doi: 10.1016/j.toxlet.2008.11.001 19049859

22. Ferguson KK, Cantonwine DE, McElrath TF, Mukherjee B, Meeker JD. Repeated measures analysis of associations between urinary bisphenol-A concentrations and biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress in pregnancy. Reprod Toxicol. 2016;66:93–8. doi: 10.1016/j.reprotox.2016.10.002 27751756

23. Ferguson KK, Cantonwine DE, Rivera-González LO, Loch-Caruso R, Mukherjee B, Anzalota Del Toro LV, et al. Urinary phthalate metabolite associations with biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress across pregnancy in Puerto Rico. Environ Sci Technol. 2014;48(12):7018–25. doi: 10.1021/es502076j 24845688

24. Li AJ, Martinez-Moral M-P, Al-Malki AL, Al-Ghamdi MA, Al-Bazi MM, Kumosani TA, et al. Mediation analysis for the relationship between urinary phthalate metabolites and type 2 diabetes via oxidative stress in a population in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Environ Int. 2019;126:153–61. doi: 10.1016/j.envint.2019.01.082 30798196

25. Zheng LY, Sanders AP, Saland JM, Wright RO, Arora M. Environmental exposures and pediatric kidney function and disease: a systematic review. Environ Res. 2017;158:625–48. doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2017.06.029 28727988

26. Ji K, Kho YL, Park Y, Choi K. Influence of a five-day vegetarian diet on urinary levels of antibiotics and phthalate metabolites: a pilot study with “Temple Stay” participants. Environ Res. 2010;110(4):375–82. doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2010.02.008 20227070

27. Martina CA, Weiss B, Swan SH. Lifestyle behaviors associated with exposures to endocrine disruptors. Neurotoxicology. 2012;33(6):1427–33. doi: 10.1016/j.neuro.2012.05.016 22739065

28. Colacino JA, Harris TR, Schecter A. Dietary intake is associated with phthalate body burden in a nationally representative sample. Environ Health Perspect. 2010;118(7):998–1003. doi: 10.1289/ehp.0901712 20392686

29. Calafat AM, Ye X, Wong L-Y, Reidy JA, Needham LL. Exposure of the US population to bisphenol A and 4-tertiary-octylphenol: 2003–2004. Environ Health Perspect. 2007;116(1):39–44.

30. Becker K, Goen T, Seiwert M, Conrad A, Pick-Fuss H, Muller J, et al. GerES IV: phthalate metabolites and bisphenol A in urine of German children. Int J Hyg Environ Health. 2009;212(6):685–92. doi: 10.1016/j.ijheh.2009.08.002 19729343

31. Hehn RS. NHANES data support link between handling of thermal paper receipts and increased urinary bisphenol A excretion. Environ Sci Technol. 2016;50(1):397–404. doi: 10.1021/acs.est.5b04059 26583963

32. Schecter A, Malik N, Haffner D, Smith S, Harris TR, Paepke O, et al. Bisphenol A (BPA) in U.S. food. Environ Sci Technol. 2010;44(24):9425–30. doi: 10.1021/es102785d 21038926

33. Schettler T, Skakkebæk NE, De Kretser D, Leffers H. Human exposure to phthalates via consumer products. Int J Androl. 2006;29(1):134–9. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2605.2005.00567.x 16466533

34. Becker K, Seiwert M, Angerer J, Heger W, Koch HM, Nagorka R, et al. DEHP metabolites in urine of children and DEHP in house dust. Int J Hyg Environ Health. 2004;207(5):409–17. doi: 10.1078/1438-4639-00309 15575555

35. Wormuth M, Scheringer M, Vollenweider M, Hungerbühler K. What are the sources of exposure to eight frequently used phthalic acid esters in Europeans? Risk Anal. 2006;26(3):803–24. doi: 10.1111/j.1539-6924.2006.00770.x 16834635

36. Fromme H, Gruber L, Schlummer M, Wolz G, Böhmer S, Angerer J, et al. Intake of phthalates and di(2-ethylhexyl)adipate: results of the integrated exposure assessment survey based on duplicate diet samples and biomonitoring data. Environ Int. 2007;33(8):1012–20. doi: 10.1016/j.envint.2007.05.006 17610953

37. Von Goetz N, Wormuth M, Scheringer M, Hungerbühler K. Bisphenol A: how the most relevant exposure sources contribute to total consumer exposure. Risk Anal. 2010;30(3):473–87. doi: 10.1111/j.1539-6924.2009.01345.x 20136739

38. Wilson NK, Chuang JC, Morgan MK, Lordo RA, Sheldon LS. An observational study of the potential exposures of preschool children to pentachlorophenol, bisphenol-A, and nonylphenol at home and daycare. Environ Res. 2007;103(1):9–20. doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2006.04.006 16750524

39. Weaver VM, Kotchmar DJ, Fadrowski JJ, Silbergeld EK. Challenges for environmental epidemiology research: are biomarker concentrations altered by kidney function or urine concentration adjustment? J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol. 2016;26(1):1–8. doi: 10.1038/jes.2015.8 25736163

40. Krieter DH, Canaud B, Lemke H-D, Rodriguez A, Morgenroth A, von Appen K, et al. Bisphenol A in chronic kidney disease. Artif Organs. 2013;37(3):283–90. doi: 10.1111/j.1525-1594.2012.01556.x 23145999

41. González-Parra E, Herrero JA, Elewa U, Bosch RJ, Arduán AO, Egido J. Bisphenol a in chronic kidney disease. Int J Nephrol. 2013;2013:437857. doi: 10.1155/2013/437857 23997953

42. Furth SL, Cole SR, Moxey-Mims M, Kaskel F, Mak R, Schwartz G, et al. Design and methods of the Chronic Kidney Disease in Children (CKiD) prospective cohort study. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2006;1(5):1006–15. doi: 10.2215/CJN.01941205 17699320

43. Koch HM, Angerer J. Di-iso-nonylphthalate (DINP) metabolites in human urine after a single oral dose of deuterium-labelled DINP. Int J Hyg Environ Health. 2007;210(1):9–19. doi: 10.1016/j.ijheh.2006.11.008 17182279

44. Koch HM, Preuss R, Angerer J. Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP): human metabolism and internal exposure—an update and latest results. Int J Androl. 2006;29(1):155–65. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2605.2005.00607.x 16466535

45. Hoppin JA, Brock JW, Davis BJ, Baird DD. Reproducibility of urinary phthalate metabolites in first morning urine samples. Environ Health Perspect. 2002;110(5):515–8. doi: 10.1289/ehp.02110515 12003755

46. Volkel W, Colnot T, Csanady GA, Filser JG, Dekant W. Metabolism and kinetics of bisphenol a in humans at low doses following oral administration. Chem Res Toxicol. 2002;15(10):1281–7. doi: 10.1021/tx025548t 12387626

47. Teitelbaum S, Britton J, Calafat A, Ye X, Silva M, Reidy J, et al. Temporal variability in urinary concentrations of phthalate metabolites, phytoestrogens and phenols among minority children in the United States. Environ Res. 2008;106(2):257–69. doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2007.09.010 17976571

48. Nepomnaschy PA, Baird DD, Weinberg CR, Hoppin JA, Longnecker MP, Wilcox AJ. Within-person variability in urinary bisphenol A concentrations: measurements from specimens after long-term frozen storage. Environ Res. 2009;109(6):734–7. doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2009.04.004 19463991

49. Furth SL, Abraham AG, Jerry-Fluker J, Schwartz GJ, Benfield M, Kaskel F, et al. Metabolic abnormalities, cardiovascular disease risk factors, and GFR decline in children with chronic kidney disease. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2011;6(9):2132–40. doi: 10.2215/CJN.07100810 21841064

50. Hornung RW, Reed LD. Estimation of average concentration in the presence of nondetectable values. Appl Occup Environ Hyg. 1990;5(1):46–51.

51. Schwartz GJ, Munoz A, Schneider MF, Mak RH, Kaskel F, Warady BA, et al. New equations to estimate GFR in children with CKD. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2009;20(3):629–37. doi: 10.1681/ASN.2008030287 19158356

52. Wong CS, Pierce CB, Cole SR, Warady BA, Mak RH, Benador NM, et al. Association of proteinuria with race, cause of chronic kidney disease, and glomerular filtration rate in the chronic kidney disease in children study. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2009;4(4):812–9. doi: 10.2215/CJN.01780408 19297612

53. Fuhrman DY, Schneider MF, Dell KM, Blydt-Hansen TD, Mak R, Saland JM, et al. Albuminuria, proteinuria, and renal disease progression in children with CKD. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2017;12(6):912–20. doi: 10.2215/CJN.11971116 28546440

54. Flynn JT, Mitsnefes M, Pierce C, Cole SR, Parekh RS, Furth SL, et al. Blood pressure in children with chronic kidney disease: a report from the Chronic Kidney Disease in Children study. Hypertension. 2008;52(4):631–7. doi: 10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.108.110635 18725579

55. National High Blood Pressure Education Program Working Group on High Blood Pressure in Children and Adolescents. The fourth report on the diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment of high blood pressure in children and adolescents. Pediatrics. 2004;114(2 Suppl 4th Report):555–76.

56. Kataria A, Levine D, Wertenteil S, Vento S, Xue J, Rajendiran K, et al. Exposure to bisphenols and phthalates and association with oxidant stress, insulin resistance, and endothelial dysfunction in children. Pediatr Res. 2017;81(6):857. doi: 10.1038/pr.2017.16 28099427

57. Barr DB, Wilder LC, Caudill SP, Gonzalez AJ, Needham LL, Pirkle JL. Urinary creatinine concentrations in the US population: implications for urinary biologic monitoring measurements. Environ Health Perspect. 2004;113(2):192–200.

58. R Core Team. R: a language and environment for statistical computing. Version 3.5.0. Vienna: R Foundation for Statistical Computing; 2013.

59. Pinheiro J, Bates D, DebRoy S, Sarkar D, R Core Team. nlme: linear and nonlinear mixed effects models. R package version 3.1–137. Comprehensive R Archive Network; 2018.

60. Peralta CA, Katz R, Bonventre JV, Sabbisetti V, Siscovick D, Sarnak M, et al. Associations of urinary levels of kidney injury molecule 1 (KIM-1) and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) with kidney function decline in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). Am J Kidney Dis. 2012;60(6):904–11. doi: 10.1053/j.ajkd.2012.05.014 22749388

61. Panduru NM, Sandholm N, Forsblom C, Saraheimo M, Dahlström EH, Thorn LM, et al. Kidney injury molecule-1 and the loss of kidney function in diabetic nephropathy: a likely causal link in patients with type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2015;38(6):1130–7. doi: 10.2337/dc14-2330 25784666

62. Foster MC, Coresh J, Bonventre JV, Sabbisetti VS, Waikar SS, Mifflin TE, et al. Urinary biomarkers and risk of ESRD in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2015;10(11):1956–63. doi: 10.2215/CJN.02590315 26350438

63. Alderson HV, Ritchie JP, Pagano S, Middleton RJ, Pruijm M, Vuilleumier N, et al. The associations of blood kidney injury molecule-1 and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin with progression from CKD to ESRD. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2016;11(12):2141–9. doi: 10.2215/CJN.02670316 27852662

64. Bhavsar NA, Köttgen A, Coresh J, Astor BC. Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) and kidney injury molecule 1 (KIM-1) as predictors of incident CKD stage 3: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study. Am J Kidney Dis. 2012;60(2):233–40. doi: 10.1053/j.ajkd.2012.02.336 22542304

65. Garlo KG, White WB, Bakris GL, Zannad F, Wilson CA, Kupfer S, et al. Kidney biomarkers and decline in eGFR in patients with type 2 diabetes. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2018;13(3):398–405. doi: 10.2215/CJN.05280517 29339356

66. Hu J, Wang Y, Xiang X, Peng C, Gao R, Goswami R, et al. Serum bisphenol A as a predictor of chronic kidney disease progression in primary hypertension: a 6-year prospective study. J Hypertens. 2016;34(2):332–7. doi: 10.1097/HJH.0000000000000780 26628110

67. Ferguson KK, Loch-Caruso R, Meeker JD. Urinary phthalate metabolites in relation to biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress: NHANES 1999–2006. Environ Res. 2011;111(5):718–26. doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2011.02.002 21349512

68. Yang YJ, Hong Y-C, Oh S-Y, Park M-S, Kim H, Leem J-H, et al. Bisphenol A exposure is associated with oxidative stress and inflammation in postmenopausal women. Environ Res. 2009;109(6):797–801. doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2009.04.014 19464675

69. Lin C-Y, Chen P-C, Hsieh C-J, Chen C-Y, Hu A, Sung F-C, et al. Positive association between urinary concentration of phthalate metabolites and oxidation of DNA and lipid in adolescents and young adults. Sci Rep. 2017;7:44318. doi: 10.1038/srep44318 28290483

70. Hurst CH, Waxman DJ. Activation of PPARα and PPARγ by environmental phthalate monoesters. Toxicol Sci. 2003;74(2):297–308. doi: 10.1093/toxsci/kfg145 12805656

71. Tetz LM, Cheng AA, Korte CS, Giese RW, Wang P, Harris C, et al. Mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate induces oxidative stress responses in human placental cells in vitro. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2013;268(1):47–54. doi: 10.1016/j.taap.2013.01.020 23360888

72. Erkekoglu P, Rachidi W, Yuzugullu OG, Giray B, Favier A, Ozturk M, et al. Evaluation of cytotoxicity and oxidative DNA damaging effects of di (2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate (DEHP) and mono (2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate (MEHP) on MA-10 Leydig cells and protection by selenium. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2010;248(1):52–62. doi: 10.1016/j.taap.2010.07.016 20659492

73. Kang H, Kim S, Lee G, Lee I, Lee JP, Lee J, et al. Urinary metabolites of dibutyl phthalate and benzophenone-3 are potential chemical risk factors of chronic kidney function markers among healthy women. Environ Int. 2019;124:354–60. doi: 10.1016/j.envint.2019.01.028 30660848

74. Tsai H-J, Chen B-H, Wu C-F, Wang S-L, Huang P-C, Tsai Y-C, et al. Intake of phthalate-tainted foods and microalbuminuria in children: the 2011 Taiwan food scandal. Environ Int. 2016;89:129–37. doi: 10.1016/j.envint.2016.01.015 26827184

75. Trasande L, Sathyanarayana S, Trachtman H. Dietary phthalates and low-grade albuminuria in US children and adolescents. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2014;9(1):100–9. doi: 10.2215/CJN.04570413 24178978

76. Ye X, Wong L-Y, Bishop AM, Calafat AM. Variability of urinary concentrations of bisphenol A in spot samples, first morning voids, and 24-hour collections. Environ Health Perspect. 2011;119(7):983–8. doi: 10.1289/ehp.1002701 21406337

77. Townsend MK, Franke AA, Li X, Hu FB, Eliassen AH. Within-person reproducibility of urinary bisphenol A and phthalate metabolites over a 1 to 3 year period among women in the Nurses’ Health Studies: a prospective cohort study. Environ Health. 2013;12(1):80. doi: 10.1186/1476-069X-12-80 24034517

78. Devarajan P. Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL): a new marker of kidney disease. Scand J Clin Lab Invest Suppl. 2008;241:89–94. doi: 10.1080/00365510802150158 18569973

79. Bonventre JV. Kidney injury molecule-1: a translational journey. Trans Am Clin Climatol Assoc. 2014;125:293–9. 25125746

80. Valavanidis A, Vlachogianni T, Fiotakis C. 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG): a critical biomarker of oxidative stress and carcinogenesis. J Environ Sci Health C Environ Carcinog Ecotoxicol Rev. 2009;27(2):120–39. doi: 10.1080/10590500902885684 19412858

81. Pratico D, Rokach J, Lawson J, FitzGerald GA. F2-isoprostanes as indices of lipid peroxidation in inflammatory diseases. Chem Phys Lipids. 2004;128(1–2):165–71. doi: 10.1016/j.chemphyslip.2003.09.012 15037161

Článek vyšel v časopise

PLOS Medicine

2020 Číslo 10

Nejčtenější v tomto čísle

Tomuto tématu se dále věnují…


Zvyšte si kvalifikaci online z pohodlí domova

Antiseptika a prevence ve stomatologii
nový kurz
Autoři: MUDr. Ladislav Korábek, CSc., MBA

Citikolin v neuroprotekci a neuroregeneraci: od výzkumu do klinické praxe nejen očních lékařů
Autoři: MUDr. Petr Výborný, CSc., FEBO

Zánětlivá bolest zad a axiální spondylartritida – Diagnostika a referenční strategie
Autoři: MUDr. Monika Gregová, Ph.D., MUDr. Kristýna Bubová

Diagnostika a léčba deprese pro ambulantní praxi
Autoři: MUDr. Jan Hubeňák, Ph.D

Význam nemocničního alert systému v době SARS-CoV-2
Autoři: doc. MUDr. Helena Lahoda Brodská, Ph.D., prim. MUDr. Václava Adámková

Všechny kurzy
Kurzy Doporučená témata Časopisy
Zapomenuté heslo

Nemáte účet?  Registrujte se

Zapomenuté heslo

Zadejte e-mailovou adresu, se kterou jste vytvářel(a) účet, budou Vám na ni zaslány informace k nastavení nového hesla.


Nemáte účet?  Registrujte se