1. MoynihanR, DoustJ, HenryD (2012) Preventing overdiagnosis: how to stop harming the healthy. BMJ 344: 19–23.
2. Echouffo-TcheuguiJB, KegneAP (2012) Risk models to predict chronic kidney disease and its progression: A systematic review. PLoS Med 9 (11) e1001344 doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1001344
3. CoreshJ, AstorBC, GreeneT, EknoyanG, LeveyAS (2003) Prevalence of chronic kidney disease and decreased kidney function in the adult US population: Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Am J Kidney Dis 41: 1–12.
4. AstorBC, MatsushitaK, GansevoortRT, van der VeldeM, WoodwardM, et al. (2011) Lower estimated glomerular filtration rate and higher albuminuria are associated with mortality and end-stage renal disease. A collaborative meta-analysis of kidney disease population cohorts. Kidney Int 79: 1331–1340.
5. GansevoortRT, MatsushitaK, van der VeldeM, AstorBC, WoodwardM, et al. (2011) Lower estimated GFR and higher albuminuria are associated with adverse kidney outcomes in both general and high-risk populations. A collaborative meta-analysis of general and high-risk population cohorts. Kidney Int 80: 93–104.
6. MatsushitaK, van der VeldeM, AstorBC, WoodwardM, LeveyAS, et al. (2010) Association of estimated glomerular filtration rate and albuminuria with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in general population cohorts: a collaborative meta-analysis. Lancet 375: 2073–2081.
7. Mahmoodi BK, Gansevoort RT, Naess IA, Lutsey PL, Braekkan SK, et al.. (2012) Association of mild to moderate chronic kidney disease with venous thromboembolism: pooled analysis of five prospective general population cohorts. Circulation 126: 1964–1971.
8. Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (2002) K/DOQI clinical practice guidelines for chronic kidney disease: evaluation, classification, and stratification. Am J Kidney Dis 39: S1–266.
9. LeveyAS, BoschJP, LewisJB, GreeneT, RogersN, et al. (1999) A more accurate method to estimate glomerular filtration rate from serum creatinine: a new prediction equation. Modification of Diet in Renal Disease Study Group. Ann Intern Med 130: 461–470.
10. WinearlsCG, GlassockRJ (2009) Dissecting and refining the staging of chronic kidney disease. Kidney Int 75: 1009–1014.
11. LeveyAS, StevensLA, SchmidCH, ZhangYL, CastroAF3rd, et al. (2009) A new equation to estimate glomerular filtration rate. Ann Intern Med 150: 604–612.
12. InkerLA, SchmidCH, TighiouartH, EckfeldtJH, FeldmanHI, et al. (2012) Estimating glomerular filtration rate from serum creatinine and cystatin C. N Engl J Med 367: 20–29.
13. PerkinsBA, FicocielloLH, SilvaKH, FinkelsteinDM, WarramJH, et al. (2003) Regression of microalbuminuria in type 1 diabetes. N Engl J Med 348: 2285–2293.
14. StrippoliGF, BonifatiC, CraigM, NavaneethanSD, CraigJC (2006) Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor antagonists for preventing the progression of diabetic kidney disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev CD006257.
15. JafarTH, SchmidCH, LandaM, GiatrasI, TotoR, et al. (2001) Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and progression of nondiabetic renal disease. A meta-analysis of patient-level data. Ann Int Med 135: 73–87.
16. BrennerBM, CooperME, de ZeeuwD, KeaneWF, MitchWE, et al. (2001) Effects of losartan on renal and cardiovascular outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes and nephropathy. New Engl J Med 345: 861–869.
17. BrouwersFP, AsselbergsFW, HillegeHL, de BoerRA, GansevoortRT, et al. (2011) Long-term effects of fosinopril and pravastatin on cardiovascular events in subjects with microalbuminuria:Ten years of follow-up of Prevention of Renal and Vascular End-stage Disease Intervention Trial (PREVEND IT). Am Heart J 161: 1171–1178.
18. BaigentC, LandrayMJ, ReithC, EmbersonJ, WheelerDC, et al. (2011) The effects of lowering LDL cholesterol with simvastatin plus ezetimibe in patients with chronic kidney disease (Study of Heart and Renal Protection): a randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 377: 2181–2192.
19. MoyerVA (2012) Screening for chronic kidney disease: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. Ann Intern Med 157:567–570.
20. National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (2008) Chronic kidney disease: national clinical guideline for early identification and management of chronic kidney disease in adults in primary and secondary care. Available: http://www.nice.org.uk/cg73. Accessed September 2012.