Genomic rearrangements generate hypervariable mini-chromosomes in host-specific isolates of the blast fungus


Autoři: Thorsten Langner aff001;  Adeline Harant aff001;  Luis B. Gomez-Luciano aff002;  Ram K. Shrestha aff001;  Angus Malmgren aff001;  Sergio M. Latorre aff003;  Hernán A. Burbano aff004;  Joe Win aff001;  Sophien Kamoun aff001
Působiště autorů: The Sainsbury Laboratory, University of East Anglia, Norwich Research Park, Norwich, United Kingdom aff001;  Biodiversity Research Center, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan aff002;  Research group for Ancient Genomics and Evolution, Department of Molecular Biology, Max Planck Institute for Developmental Biology, Tübingen, Germany aff003;  Centre for Life’s Origins and Evolution, Department of Genetics, Evolution and Environment, University College London, London, United Kingdom aff004
Vyšlo v časopise: Genomic rearrangements generate hypervariable mini-chromosomes in host-specific isolates of the blast fungus. PLoS Genet 17(2): e1009386. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1009386
Kategorie: Research Article
doi: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1009386

Souhrn

Supernumerary mini-chromosomes–a unique type of genomic structural variation–have been implicated in the emergence of virulence traits in plant pathogenic fungi. However, the mechanisms that facilitate the emergence and maintenance of mini-chromosomes across fungi remain poorly understood. In the blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae (Syn. Pyricularia oryzae), mini-chromosomes have been first described in the early 1990s but, until very recently, have been overlooked in genomic studies. Here we investigated structural variation in four isolates of the blast fungus M. oryzae from different grass hosts and analyzed the sequences of mini-chromosomes in the rice, foxtail millet and goosegrass isolates. The mini-chromosomes of these isolates turned out to be highly diverse with distinct sequence composition. They are enriched in repetitive elements and have lower gene density than core-chromosomes. We identified several virulence-related genes in the mini-chromosome of the rice isolate, including the virulence-related polyketide synthase Ace1 and two variants of the effector gene AVR-Pik. Macrosynteny analyses around these loci revealed structural rearrangements, including inter-chromosomal translocations between core- and mini-chromosomes. Our findings provide evidence that mini-chromosomes emerge from structural rearrangements and segmental duplication of core-chromosomes and might contribute to adaptive evolution of the blast fungus.

Klíčová slova:

Fungal genomics – Genome analysis – Genomics – Plant fungal pathogens – Protein domains – Rice – Sequence alignment – Structural genomics


Zdroje

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