1. Hubsher O, Batista N, Rivero S, et al. Clinical and serological identification of 2 forms of complete heart block in children. J Rheumatol 1995; 22: 1352–1355.
2. Ho YS, Esscher E, Anderson RH, et al. Anatomy of congenital complete heart block and relation to maternal anti-Ro antibodies. Am J Cardiol 1986; 58: 291–294.
3. Buyon JP, Hiebert R, Copel J, et al. Autoimmune-associated congenital heart block: demographics, mortality, morbidity and recurrence rates obtained from the national lupus registry. J Am Coll Cardiol 1998; 31: 1658–1666.
4. Nield LE, Silverman ED, Smallhorn JF, et al. Endocardial fibroelastosis associated with maternal anti-Ro and anti-La antibodies in the absence of atrioventricular block. J Am Coll Cardiol 2002; 40(4): 796–802.
5. Lynne EN, Silverman ED, Taylor GP, et al. Maternal anti-Ro and anti-La antibody-associated endocardial fibroeastosis. Circulation 2002; 105: 843–848.
6. Mofors J, Eliasson H, Ambrosi A, et al. Comorbidity and long-term outcome in patients with congenital heart block and their siblings exposed to Roo/SSA autoantibodies in utero. Ann Rheum Dis 2019; 75: 595–703.
7. van Bergen AH, Cuneo BF, Davis N. Prospective echocardiographic evaluation of atrioventricular conduction in fetuses with maternal Sjogren’s antibodies. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2004; 191: 1014–1018.
8. Jaeggi E, Laskin C, Hamilton R, et al. The importance of the level of maternal anti-Ro/SSA antibodies as a prognostic marker of the development of cardiac neonatal lupus erythmematosus. J Am Coll Cardiol 2010; 24: 2778–2784.
9. Salomonsson S, Dzikaite V, Zeffer E, et al. A population-based investigation of the autoantibody profile in mothers of children with atrioventricular block. Scand J Immunol 2011; 74: 511–517.
10. Anami A, Fukushima K, Takasaki Y, et al. The predictive value of anti-SS-A antibodies titration in pregnant women with fetal congenital heart block. Mod Rheumatol 2013; 23: 653–658.
11. Berg C, Geipel A, Kohl T, et al. Atrioventricular block detected in fetal life: associated anomalies and potential prognostic markers. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2005; 26: 4–15.
12. Eliasson H, Sonesson SE, Sharland G, et al. Isolated atrioventricular block in the fetus: A retrospective, multinational, multicenter study of 175 patients. Circulation 2011; 124 (18): 1919–1926.
13. Custodeat-Chalumeau N, Amoura Z, Le Thi Hong D, Piette JC. Questions about dexamethason use for the prevention of anti-SSA related congenital heart block. Ann Rheum Dis 2003; 62: 1010–1012.
14. Schmidt KG, Ulmer HE, Silverman NH, et al. Perinatal outcome of fetal complete atrioventricular block: a multicenter experience. J Am Coll Cardiol 1991; 17: 1360–1366.
15. Mevorach D, Elchalal U, Rein AJ. Prevention of complete heart block in children of mothers with anti-SSA/Ro and anit-SSB/La autoantibodies: detection and treatment of first degree atrioventricular block. Curr Opin Rheumatol 2009; 21(5): 478–482.
16. Lee BH, Stoll BJ, McDonald SA, Higgins RD. National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network. Neurodevelopmental outcomes of extremely low birth weight infants exposed prenatally to dexamethasone versus betamethasone. Pediatrics 2008; 121(2): 289–296.
17. Rademaker KJ, de Vries WB. Long-term effects of neonatal hydrocortisone treatment for chronic lung disease on the developing brain and heart. Semin Fetal Neonatal Med 2009; 14(3): 171–177.
18. Jaeggi ET, Fouron JC, Silverman ED, et al. Transplacental fetal treatment improves the outcome of prenatally diagnosed complete atrioventricular block without structural heart disease. Circulation 2004; 110: 1542–1548.
19. Hickstein H, Kulz T, Claus R, et al. Autoimunne-associated congenital heart block: treatment of the mother with immunoadsorption. Ther Apher Dial 2005; 9: 148–153.
20. Makino S, Yonemoto H, Itoh S, Takeda S. Effect of steroid administration and plasmapheresis to prevent fetal congenital heart block in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and/or Sjogren’s syndrome. Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica 2007; 86: 1145–1146.
21. Samuelsson A, Towers TL, Ravetch JV. Anti-inflammatory activity of IVIG mediated through the inhibitory Fc receptor. Science 2001; 291: 484–486.
22. Friedman DM, Llanos C, Izmirly PM, et al. Evaluation of fetuses in a study of intravenous immunoglobulin as preventive therapy for congenital heart block: Results of a multicenter, prospective, open-label clinical trial. Arthritis Rheum 2010; 62: 1138–1146.
23. Pisoni CN, Brucato A, Ruffatti A, et al. Failure of intravenous immunoglobulin to prevent congenital heart block: Findings of a multicenter, prospective, observational study. Arthritis Rheum 2010; 62: 1147–1152.
24. Lopes LM, Tavares GM, Damiano AP, et al. Perinatal outcome of fetal atrioventricular block: one-hundred-sixteen cases from a singleton institution. Circulation 2008; 118: 1268–1275.
25. Jaeggi ET, Silverman ED, Yoo SJ, Kingdom J. Is immune-mediated complete fetal atrioventricular block reversible by transplacental dexamethasone therapy? Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2004; 23(6): 602–605.
26. Sonesson SE, Salomonsson S, Jacobsson LA, et al. Signs of first-degree heart block occur in one-third of fetuse of pregnant women anti-SSA/Ro 52-kd antibodies. Arthirits Rheum 2004; 50: 1253–1261.
27. Tomek V, Janoušek J, Reich O, et al. Atrioventricular conduction time in foetuses assesed by Doppler echocardiography. Physiol Res 2011; 60: 611–616.
28. Gardiner HM, Belmar C, Pasquini L, et al. Fetal ECG: a novel predictor of atrioventricular block in anti-Ro positive pregnancies. Heart 2007; 93(11): 1454–1460.
29. Saxena A, Izmirly PM, Mendez B, et al. Prevention and treatment in utero of autoimmune associated congenital heart block. Cardiol Rev 2014; 22(6): 263–267.
30. Izmirly PM, Custodeat-Chalumeau N, Pisoni CN, et al. Maternal use of of hydroxychloroquine is associated with a reduced risk of recurrent anti-SSA/Ro-antibody-associated cardiac manifestation of neonatal lupus. Circulation 2012; 125: 76–82.
31. Levy RA, Vilela VS, Cataldo MJ, et al. Hydroxychloroquine in lupus pregnancy: A double-blind placebo controlled study. Lupus 2001; 10: 401–404.
32. Cuneo BF, Ambrose SE, Tworetsky WT. Detection and succesful treatment of emergent anti-SSA-mediated fetal atrioventricular block. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2016; 215: 527–528.
33. Cuneo BF, Sonesson SE, Levasseur S, et al. Home monitoring for fetal heart rhtyhm during anti-Ro pregnancies. J Am Coll Cardiol 2018; 72(16): 1940–1951.