Association between non-malignant monoclonal gammopathy and adverse outcomes in chronic kidney disease: A cohort study

Autoři: Anthony Fenton aff001;  Rajkumar Chinnadurai aff003;  Latha Gullapudi aff004;  Petros Kampanis aff005;  Indranil Dasgupta aff001;  James Ritchie aff003;  Stephen Harding aff005;  Charles J. Ferro aff001;  Philip A. Kalra aff003;  Maarten W. Taal aff004;  Paul Cockwell aff001
Působiště autorů: University Hospitals Birmingham NHS Foundation Trust, Birmingham, United Kingdom aff001;  Institute of Inflammation and Ageing, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom aff002;  Salford Royal NHS Foundation Trust, Salford, United Kingdom aff003;  Division of Medical Sciences and Graduate Entry Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, United Kingdom aff004;  Binding Site, Birmingham, United Kingdom aff005
Vyšlo v časopise: Association between non-malignant monoclonal gammopathy and adverse outcomes in chronic kidney disease: A cohort study. PLoS Med 17(2): e32767. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1003050
Kategorie: Research Article
doi: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1003050



In studies including the general population, the presence of non-malignant monoclonal gammopathy (MG) can be causally associated with kidney damage and shorter survival. We assessed whether the presence of an MG is associated with a higher risk of kidney failure or death in individuals with chronic kidney disease (CKD).

Methods and findings

Data were used from 3 prospective cohorts of individuals with CKD (not on dialysis or with a kidney transplant): (1) Renal Impairment in Secondary Care (RIISC, Queen Elizabeth Hospital and Heartlands Hospital, Birmingham, UK, N = 878), (2) Salford Kidney Study (SKS, Salford Royal Hospital, Salford, UK, N = 861), and (3) Renal Risk in Derby (RRID, Derby, UK, N = 1,739). Participants were excluded if they had multiple myeloma or any other B cell lymphoproliferative disorder with end-organ damage. Median age was 71.0 years, 50.6% were male, median estimated glomerular filtration rate was 42.3 ml/min/1.73 m2, and median urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio was 3.4 mg/mmol. All non-malignant MG was identified in the baseline serum of participants of RIISC. Further, light chain MG (LC-MG) was identified and studied in participants of RIISC, SKS, and RRID. Participants were followed up for kidney failure (defined as the initiation of dialysis or kidney transplantation) and death. Associations with the risk of kidney failure were estimated by competing-risks regression (handling death as a competing risk), and associations with death were estimated by Cox proportional hazards regression. In total, 102 (11.6%) of the 878 RIISC participants had an MG. During a median follow-up time of 74.0 months, there were 327 kidney failure events and 202 deaths. The presence of MG was not associated with risk of kidney failure (univariable subhazard ratio [SHR] 0.97 [95% CI 0.68 to 1.38], P = 0.85; multivariable SHR 1.16 [95% CI 0.80 to 1.69], P = 0.43), and although there was a higher risk of death in univariable analysis (hazard ratio [HR] 2.13 [95% CI 1.49 to 3.02], P < 0.001), this was not significant in multivariable analysis (HR 1.37 [95% CI 0.93 to 2.00], P = 0.11). Fifty-five (1.6%) of the 3,478 participants from all 3 studies had LC-MG. During a median follow-up time of 62.5 months, 564 of the 3,478 participants progressed to kidney failure, and 803 died. LC-MG was not associated with risk of kidney failure (univariable SHR 1.07 [95% CI 0.58 to 1.96], P = 0.82; multivariable SHR 1.42 [95% CI 0.78 to 2.57], P = 0.26). There was a higher risk of death in those with LC-MG in the univariable model (HR 2.51 [95% CI 1.59 to 3.96], P < 0.001), but not in the multivariable model (HR 1.49 [95% CI 0.93 to 2.39], P = 0.10). An important limitation of this work was that only LC-MG, rather than any MG, could be identified in participants from SKS and RRID.


The prevalence of MG was higher in this CKD cohort than that reported in the general population. However, the presence of an MG was not independently associated with a significantly higher risk of kidney failure or, unlike in the general population, risk of death.

Klíčová slova:

Cohort studies – Coronary heart disease – diabetes mellitus – Glomerular filtration rate – Chronic kidney disease – Kidneys – Renal arteries – Urine


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PLOS Medicine

2020 Číslo 2

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