1. Tolbert J, Orgera K, Singer N, Damico A. Key facts about the uninsured population. San Francisco Kaiser Family Foundation; 2019 Dec 13 [cited 2019 Dec 18]. https://www.kff.org/uninsured/fact-sheet/key-facts-about-the-uninsured-population/.
2. Woolhandler S, Himmelstein DU. The relationship of health insurance and mortality: is lack of insurance deadly? Ann Intern Med. 2017;167(6):424–431. doi: 10.7326/M17-1403 28655034
3. Chen Z, Min J, Bian J, Wang M, Zhou L, Prosperi M. Risk of health morbidity for the uninsured: 10-year evidence from a large hospital center in Boston, Massachusetts. Int J Qual Health Care. 2018;31(5):325–3.
4. Christopher AS, McCormick D, Woolhandler S, Himmelstein DU, Bor DH, Wilper AP. Access to care and chronic disease outcomes among Medicaid-insured persons versus the uninsured. Am J Public Health. 2016;106(1):63–9. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2015.302925 26562119
5. McWilliam JM. Health consequences of uninsurance among adults in the United States: recent evidence and implications. Milbank Q. 2009;87(2):443–94. doi: 10.1111/j.1468-0009.2009.00564.x 19523125
6. Kaiser Family Foundation. 2018 Employer health benefits survey. Oakland (CA): Kaiser Family Foundation; 2018 [cited 2019 Dec 24]. https://www.kff.org/report-section/2018-employer-health-benefits-survey-section-5-market-shares-of-health-plans/.
7. Collins SR, Rasmussen PW, Beutel S, Doty MM. The problem of underinsurance and how rising deductibles will make it worse: findings from the Commonwealth Fund Biennial Health Insurance Survey, 2014. New York: Commonwealth Fund; 2015.
8. Nguyen KH, Sommers BD. Access and quality of care by insurance type for low-income adults before the Affordable Care Act. Am J Public Health. 2016;106(8):1409–15. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2016.303156 27196646
9. Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services. National health expenditure data: historical. Baltimore: Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services; 2019 [cited 2019 Dec 18]. https://www.cms.gov/Research-Statistics-Data-and-Systems/Statistics-Trends-and-Reports/NationalHealthExpendData/NationalHealthAccountsHistorical.html.
10. Himmelstein DU, Woolhandler S. The current and projected taxpayer shares of US health costs. Am J Public Health. 2016;106(3):449–52. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2015.302997 26794173
11. Anderson GF, Hussey P, Petrosyan V. It’s still the prices, stupid: why the US spends so much on health care, and a tribute to Uwe Reinhardt. Health Aff (Millwood). 2019;38(1):87–95.
12. Papanicolas I, Woskie LR, Jha AK. Health care spending in the United States and other high-income countries. JAMA. 2018;319(10):1024–39. doi: 10.1001/jama.2018.1150 29536101
13. Jiwani A, Himmelstein D, Woolhandler S, Kahn JG. Billing and insurance-related administrative costs in United States’ health care: Synthesis of micro-costing evidence. BMC Health Serv Res. 2014;14(1):556.
14. Stein L, Cornwell S, Tanfani J. Inside the progressive movement roiling the Democratic Party. Reuters. 2018 Aug 23 [cited 2019 Dec 18]. https://www.reuters.com/investigates/special-report/usa-election-progressives/.
15. Serafini M. Why clinicians support single-payer—and who will win and lose. NEJM Catalyst. 2018 Jan 17.
16. POLITICO, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health. Americans’ health and education priorities for the new congress in 2019. Boston: Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health; 2019 Jan [cited 2019 Dec 18]. https://cdn1.sph.harvard.edu/wp-content/uploads/sites/94/2019/01/Politico-Harvard-Poll-Jan-2019-Health-and-Education-Priorities-for-New-Congress-in-2019.pdf.
17. Kaiser Family Foundation. Public opinion on single-payer, national health plans, and expanding access to Medicare coverage. Kaiser Family Foundation; 2019 Nov 26 [cited 2019 Dec 18]. https://www.kff.org/slideshow/public-opinion-on-single-payer-national-health-plans-and-expanding-access-to-medicare-coverage/.
18. Pollin R, Heintz J, Arno P, Wicks-Lim J, Ash M. Economic analysis of Medicare for All. Amherst (MA): Political Economy Research Institute, University of Massachusetts Amherst; 2018 Nov 30 [cited 2019 Dec 18]. https://www.peri.umass.edu/publication/item/1127-economic-analysis-of-medicare-for-all.
19. Blahous C. The costs of a national single-payer healthcare system. Arlington (VA): Mercatus Center, George Mason University; 2018 Jul [cited 2019 Dec 18]. https://www.mercatus.org/system/files/blahous-costs-medicare-mercatus-working-paper-v1_1.pdf.
20. Holahan J, Buettgens M, Clemans-Cope L, Favreault MM, Blumberg LJ, Ndwandwe S. The Sanders single-payer health care plan: the effect on national health expenditures and federal and private spending. Washington (DC): Urban Institute; 2016 May 9 [cited 2019 Dec 18]. https://www.urban.org/research/publication/sanders-single-payer-health-care-plan-effect-national-health-expenditures-and-federal-and-private-spending/view/full_report.
21. Hellander I. How much would single payer cost? A summary of studies compiled by Ida Hellander, M.D. Chicago: Physicians for a National Health Program; 2019 [cited 2019 Dec 18]. http://pnhp.org/how-much-would-single-payer-cost/.
22. Healthcare-NOW. Listing of single payer studies. Boston: Healthcare-NOW; 2019 [cited 2019 Dec 18]. https://www.healthcare-now.org/single-payer-studies/listing-of-single-payer-studies/.
23. Center for American Progress. Medicare Extra for All: a plan to guarantee universal health coverage in the United States. Washington (DC): Center for American Progress; 2018 Feb 22 [cited 2019 Dec 18]. https://www.americanprogress.org/issues/healthcare/reports/2018/02/22/447095/medicare-extra-for-all/.
24. Thorpe KE. An analysis of Senator Sanders single payer plan. Boston: Healthcare-NOW; 2016 [cited 2019 Dec 29]. https://www.healthcare-now.org/296831690-Kenneth-Thorpe-s-analysis-of-Bernie-Sanders-s-single-payer-proposal.pdf.
25. Lau JS, Adams SH, Park MJ, Boscardin WJ, Irwin CE. Improvement in preventive care of young adults after the Affordable Care Act: the Affordable Care Act is helping. JAMA Pediatr. 2014;168(12):1101–6. doi: 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2014.1691 25347766
26. Buchmueller TC, Grumbach K, Kronick R, Kahn JG. The effect of health insurance on medical care utilization and implications for insurance expansion: a review of the literature. Med Care Res Rev. 2005;62(1):3–30. doi: 10.1177/1077558704271718 15643027
27. Cheng SH, Chiang TL. The effect of universal health insurance on health care utilization in Taiwan. JAMA. 1997;278(2):89–93. 9214512
28. Pickens G, Karaca Z, Cutler E, Dworsky M, Eibner C, Moore B, et al. Changes in hospital inpatient utilization following health care reform. Health Serv Res. 2018;53(4):2446–69. doi: 10.1111/1475-6773.12734 28664983
29. Mahendraratnam N, Dusetzina SB, Farley JF. Prescription drug utilization and reimbursement increased following state Medicaid expansion in 2014. J Manage Care Spec Pharm. 2017;23(3):355–63.
30. Ku L. Medical and dental care utilization and expenditures under Medicaid and private health insurance. Med Care Res Rev. 2009;66(4):456–71. doi: 10.1177/1077558709334896 19389727
31. Hadley J, Holahan J. Is health care spending higher under Medicaid or private insurance? Inquiry. 2003;40(4):323–42. doi: 10.5034/inquiryjrnl_40.4.323 15055833
32. Kaiser Family Foundation. When high deductibles hurt: even insured patients postpone care. San Francisco: Kaiser Family Foundation; 2017 Jul 28 [cited 2019 Dec 18]. https://khn.org/news/when-high-deductibles-hurt-even-insured-patients-postpone-care/.
33. Fauke C, Himmelstein D. Doubling down on errors: Urban Institute defends its ridiculously high single payer cost estimates. HuffPost. 2017 Dec 6 [cited 2019 Dec 18]. https://www.huffingtonpost.com/steffie-woolhandler/urban-institute-errors-single-payer-costs_b_10100836.html.
34. Gaffney A, Woolhandler S, Himmelstein D. The effect of large-scale health coverage expansions in wealthy nations on society-wide healthcare utilization. J Gen Intern Med. 2019 Nov 19. doi: 10.1007/s11606-019-05529-y 31745857
35. Gaffney A, McCormick D, Bor D, Woolhandler S, Himmelstein D. Coverage expansions and utilization of physician care: evidence from the 2014 Affordable Care Act and 1966 Medicare/Medicaid expansions. Am J Public Health. 2019;109(12):1694–701. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2019.305330 31622135
36. Simon K, Soni A, Cawley J. The impact of health insurance on preventive care and health behaviors: evidence from the first two years of the ACA Medicaid expansions. J Policy Anal Manage. 2017;36(2):390–417. doi: 10.1002/pam.21972 28378959
37. Himmelstein DU, Jun M, Busse R, Chevreul K, Geissler A, Jeurissen PPT, et al. A comparison of hospital administrative costs in eight nations: US costs exceed all others by far. Health Aff (Millwood). 2014;33(9):1586–94.
38. Gaffney A, Lexchin J. Healing an ailing pharmaceutical system: prescription for reform for United States and Canada. BMJ. 2018;361:k1039. doi: 10.1136/bmj.k1039 29773533
39. Kesselheim AS, Avorn J, Sarpatwari A. The high cost of prescription drugs in the United States: origins and prospects for reform. JAMA. 2016;316(8):858–71. doi: 10.1001/jama.2016.11237 27552619
40. Hogervorst M. A qualitative and quantitative assessment on drug pricing methods in a single-payer system in the U.S. [master’s thesis]. Utrecht: Utrecht University; 2019.
41. Patented Medicine Prices Review Board. Annual report 2016. Ottawa: Patented Medicine Prices Review Board; 2017 [cited 2019 Dec 19]. http://www.pmprb-cepmb.gc.ca/view.asp?ccid=1334.
42. Lanthier M, Miller KL, Nardinelli C, Woodcock J. An improved approach to measuring drug innovation finds steady rates of first-in-class pharmaceuticals, 1987–2011. Health Aff (Millwood). 2013;32(8):1433–9.
43. Prasad V, Mailankody S. Research and development spending to bring a single cancer drug to market and revenues after approval. JAMA Intern Med. 2017;177(11):1569–75. doi: 10.1001/jamainternmed.2017.3601 28892524
44. Drug Channels. Profits in the 2019 Fortune 500: manufacturers vs. managed care vs. pharmacies, PBMs, and wholesalers. Philadelphia: Drug Channels; 2019 Aug 27 [cited 2019 Dec 29]. https://www.drugchannels.net/2019/08/profits-in-2019-fortune-500.html.
45. Fox J. Corporate profits are down, but wages are up. New York: Bloomberg; 2019 Sep 1 [cited 2019 Dec 29]. https://www.bloomberg.com/opinion/articles/2019-09-01/corporate-profits-are-down-but-wages-are-up.
46. Frakt AB, Pizer SD, Feldman R. Should Medicare adopt the Veterans Health Administration formulary? Health Econ. 2012;21(5):485–95. doi: 10.1002/hec.1733 21506191
47. Young PL, Saunders RS, Olsen L. The healthcare imperative: lowering costs and improving outcomes: workshop series summary. Washington (DC): National Academies Press; 2010.
48. Chisholm D, Evans DB. Improving health system efficiency as a means of moving towards universal coverage. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2010 [cited 2019 Dec 19]. https://www.who.int/healthsystems/topics/financing/healthreport/28UCefficiency.pdf.
49. Sullivan K. Seema Verma hyperventilates about tiny differences between ACOs exposed to one-and two-sided risk. The Health Care Blog. 2018 Aug 21 [cited 2019 Dec 19]. https://thehealthcareblog.com/blog/2018/08/21/seema-verma-hyperventilates-about-tiny-differences-between-acos-exposed-to-one-and-two-sided-risk/.
50. Verma S. Pathways to success: a new start for Medicare’s accountable care organizations. Health Affairs Blog. 2018 Aug 9 [cited 2019 Dec 19]. https://www.healthaffairs.org/do/10.1377/hblog20180809.12285/full/.
51. Medicare Payment Advisory Commission. Report to Congress: Medicare and the healthcare delivery system. Washington (DC): Medicare Payment Advisory Commission; 2018 Jun 15 [cited 2019 Dec 19]. http://medpac.gov/docs/default-source/reports/jun18_medpacreporttocongress_sec.pdf.
52. Office of Inspector General. Medicare shared savings program accountable care organizations have shown potential for reducing spending and increasing quality. Washington (DC): Department of Health and Human Services; 2017 Aug [cited 2019 Dec 19]. https://oig.hhs.gov/oei/reports/oei-02-15-00450.pdf.
53. Bleser WK, Muhlestein D, Saunders RS, McClellan MB. Half a decade in, Medicare accountable care organizations are generating net savings: Part 1. Health Affairs Blog. 2018 Sep 20 [cited 2019 Dec 19]. https://www.healthaffairs.org/do/10.1377/hblog20180918.957502/full/.
54. McWilliams JM, Hatfield LA, Landon BE, Hamed P, Chernew ME. Medicare spending after 3 years of the Medicare shared savings program. N Engl J Med. 2018;379(12):1139–49. doi: 10.1056/NEJMsa1803388 30183495
55. Joanna Briggs Institute. The Joanna Briggs Institute Critical Appraisal tools for use in JBI Systematic Reviews: checklist for economic evaluations. Adelaide: Joanna Briggs Institute; 2017 [cited 2019 Dec 19]. https://joannabriggs.org/sites/default/files/2019-05/JBI_Critical_Appraisal-Checklist_for_Economic_Evaluations2017_0.pdf.
56. Wolff RF, Moons KG, Riley RD, Whiting PF, Westwood M, Collins GS, et al. PROBAST: a tool to assess the risk of bias and applicability of prediction model studies. Ann Intern Med. 2019;170:51–8. doi: 10.7326/M18-1376 30596875
57. Langer A. A framework for assessing Health Economic Evaluation (HEE) quality appraisal instruments. BMC Health Serv Res. 2012;12:253. doi: 10.1186/1472-6963-12-253 22894708
58. Lewin Group. Cost and coverage analysis of nine proposals to expand health insurance coverage in California. Falls Church (VA): Lewin Group; 2002 Apr 12 [cited 2019 Dec 19]. https://health-access.org/images/documents_other/health_care_options_project/hcop_lewin_report.pdf.
59. Haber S, Beil H, Amico P, Morrison M, Akhmerova V, Beadles C, et al. Evaluation of the Maryland all-payer model: third annual report. Waltham (MA): RTI International; 2018 [cited 2019 Dec 19]. https://downloads.cms.gov/files/cmmi/md-all-payer-thirdannrpt.pdf.
60. Ikegami N, editor. Universal health coverage for inclusive and sustainable development: lessons from Japan. Washington (DC): World Bank; 2014 [cited 2019 Dec 19]. http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/263851468062350384/pdf/Universal-health-coverage-for-inclusive-and-sustainable-development-lessons-from-Japan.pdf.
61. Figueras J, Robinson R, Jakubowski E, editors. Purchasing to improve health systems performance. European Observatory on Health Systems and Policies Series. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2005 [cited 2019 Dec 19]. http://www.euro.who.int/__data/assets/pdf_file/0004/98428/E86300.pdf.
62. Liu J, Eibner C. National health spending estimates under Medicare for All. Santa Monica (CA): RAND; 2019 [cited 2019 Dec 19]. https://www.rand.org/pubs/research_reports/RR3106.html.