Autoři: P. Heinz 1;  P. Tvrdý 1;  R. Pink 1;  Z. Dvořák 1,2;  P. Michl 1
Působiště autorů: Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, Palacký University Olomouc, and University Hospital Olomouc, Czech Republic 1;  Department of Plastic and Aesthetic Surgery, St. Anne’s University Hospital and Faculty of Medicine, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic 2
Vyšlo v časopise: ACTA CHIRURGIAE PLASTICAE, 62, 3-4, 2020, pp. 95-102


1. Hidalgo DA., Jones CS. The role of emergent exploration in free-tissue transfer: a review of 150 consecutive cases. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1990, 86:492-8.

2. Hyodo I., Nakayama B., Kato H., Hasegawa Y., Ogawa T., Terada A., Torii S. Analysis of salvage operation in head and neck microsurgical reconstruction. Laryngoscope. 2007, 117:357-60.

3. Khouri RK., Cooley BC., Kunselman AR., Landis JR., et al: A prospective study of microvascular free-flap surgery and outcome. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1998, 102:711-21.

4. Bui DT., Cordeiro PG., Hu QY., et al. Free flap reexploration: indications, treatment, and outcomes in 1193 free flaps. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2007, 119:2092-100.

5. Okazaki M., Asato H., Takushima A., Sarukawa S., Nakatsuka T., Yamada A., Harii K. Analysis of salvage treatments following the failure of free flap transfer caused by vascular thrombosis in reconstruction for head and neck cancer. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2007, 119:1223-32.

6. Kroll SS., Schusterman MA., Reece GP., Miller MJ., Evans GR., Robb GL., Baldwin BJ. Choice of flap and incidence of free flap success Plast Reconstr Surg. 1996, 98:459-63.

7. Capla JM., Ceradini DJ., Tepper OM., et al. Skin graft vascularization involves precisely regulated regression and replacement of endothelial cells through both angiogenesis and vasculogenesis. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2006, 117:836-44.

8. May Jr JW., Chait LA., O’Brien BM., Hurley JV. The no-reflow phenomenon in experimental free flaps. Plast Reconstruct Surg. 1978, 61:256-67.

9. Sawada Y., Hatayama I., Sone K. The effect of continuous topical application of heparin on flap survival. Br J Plast Surg. 1992, 45:515-18.

10. Shah J. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy. J Am Col Certif Wound Spec. 2010, 24:9-13.

11. Utley DS., Koch RJ., Goode RL. The failing flap in facial plastic and reconstructive surgery: Role of the medicinal leech. Laryngoscope. 1998, 108:1129-35.

12. Mann KH. Leeches (Hirudinea): their structure, physiology, ecology and embryology: Elsevier. 2013, p. 36-43.

13. Michalsen A., Roth M., Dobos G. Medicinal LeechTherapy, Georg Thieme, New York, NY, USA, 2007, p. 13-17.

14. Grassberger M., Sherman R. A., Gileva O., Kim Ch. M. H., Mumcuoglu K .Y. Eds., Biotherapy—History, Principles and Practice: A Practical Guide to the Diagnosis and Treatment of Disease Using Living Organisms, Springer, Heidelberg, Germany, 2013.

15. Soucacos P. N., Beris A. E., Malizos K. N., Kabani C. T., Pakos S. “The use of medicinal leeches, Hirudo medicinalis, to restore venous circulation in trauma and reconstructive microsurgery,” International Angiology. 1994, 13:251-58.

16. Guideline of the University of Toledo Medical Center (USA). [Internet]. Toledo: THE UNIVERSITY OF TOLEDO, 2801 W. Bancroft, St. Toledo, OH 43606 c2020 [cited 2020 Nov 11]. Available at: http://www.utoledo.edu/policies/utmc/nursing/guidelines/general. 2017

17. Guideline of the Mid Essex Hospital (United Kingdom) [Internet]. NHS Foundation Trust Mid Essex Hospital 2020 [cited 2020 Nov 11]. Available from: http://www.meht.nhs.uk/search/?q=leech.

18. Guideline of the BfArM (Germany). [Internet]. Bundesinstitut fur Arzneimittel und Medizinprodukte c 2013. [cited 2020 Nov 11]. http://www.bfarm.de/SharedDocs/Downloads/DE/Arzneimittel/Pharmakovigilanz/Service/mitteil/mittl_blutegel.pdf?__blob=publicationFile&v=3.

19. Mercer NS., Beere DM., Bornemisza AJ., Thomas P. Medicinal leeches as sources of wound infections. Br Med J. 1987, 294:937.

20. Tuncali D., Terzioglu A., Cigsar B., Aslan G. The value of medical leeches in the treatment of class IIC ring avulsion injuries: report of 2 cases. J Hand Surg. 2004, 29:943-6.

21. Wells MD., Manktelow RT., Boyd JB., Bowen V. The medical leech: an old treatment revisited. Microsurgery. 1993, 14:183-6.

22. Haycox CL., Odland PB., Coltrera MD., Raugi GJ. Indications and complications of medicinal leech therapy. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1995, 33:1053-5.

23. Grunner OCA. Treatise on the Canon of Medicine of Avicenna incorporating a translation of the first book. London: Luzac and Co. 1930, p. 513-4.

24. Rolleston JD. François-Joseph-Victor Broussais 1772 to 1832:his life and doctrines. Proc R Soc Med. 1939, 32:405-13.

25. Sawyer RT., Johann Friedrich Dieffenbach. Successful use of leeches in plastic surgery in the 1820s. Br J Plast Surg. 2000, 53:245-7.

26. Fields WS. The history of leeching and hirudin. Haemostasis. 1991, 21:3-10.

27. Deganc M., Zdravic F. Venous congestion of flaps treated by application of leeches,” . Br J Plast Surg. 1960, 13:187-92

28. Henderson HP., Matti B., Laing AG., Morelli S., Sully L. Avulsion of the scalp treated by microvascular repair: the use of leeches for post-operative decongestion. Br J Plast Surg. 1983, 36:235-9.

29. Whitaker IS., Izadi D., Oliver DW., Monteath G., Butler PE. Hirudo medicinalis and the plastic surgeon. Br J Plast Surg. 2004, 57:348-53.

30. Niqar Z., Alam MA. Effect of taleeq (leech therapy) in dawali (varicose veins). Anc Sci Life. 2011, 30:84-91.

31. Fort CW. Leech Therapy: Current Uses for an Old Treatment. Delaware Nurses Association (DNA) Reporter. 2001, 26:16-7.

32. Azzopardi EA., Whitaker IS., Rozen WM., Naderi N., Kon M. Chemical and mechanical alternatives to leech therapy: a systematic review and critical appraisal. J Reconstruct Microsurg. 2011, 27:481-6.

33. Gideroglu K., Yildirim S., Akan M., Akoz T. Immediate use of medicinal leeches to salvage venous congested reverse pedi-cled neurocutaneous flaps. Scand J Plast Reconstruct Surg Hand Surg. 2003, 37:277-82.

34. Chepeha DB., Nussenbaum B., Bradford CR., Teknos TN. Leech therapy for patients with surgically unsalvageable venous ob-struction after revascularized free tissue transfer. Arch Otolar-yngol Head Neck Surg. 2002, 128:955-60.

35. Brody GA., Maloney WJ., Hentz VR. Digit replantation applying the leech Hirudo medicinalis. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1989, 245:133-7.

36. Cho BH., Ahn HB. Microsurgical replantation of a partial ear, with leech therapy. Ann Plast Surg. 1999, 43:427-9.

37. Walton RL., Beahm EK., Brown RE., et al. Microsurgical replantation of the lip: a multi-institutional experience. Plast Recon-struct Surg. 1998, 102:358-68.

38. Frodel JL. Jr., Barth P., Wagner J. Salvage of partial facial soft tissue avulsions with medicinal leeches. Otolaryngology. 2004, 131:934-9.

39. Pantuck AJ., Lobis MR., Ciocca R., Weiss RE. Penile replantation using the leech Hirudo medicinalis. Urology. 1996, 48:953-6.

40. Eldor A., Orevi M., Rigbi MJBR. The role of the leech in medical therapeutics. Blood Rev. 1996, 10:201-9.

41. Houschyar KS., Momeni A., Maan ZN., et al. Medical leech therapy in plastic reconstructive surgery. Wien Med Wochenschr. 2015, 165:419-25.

42. Whitaker IS., Oboumarzouk O., Rozen WM., et al. The efficacy of medicinal leeches in plastic and reconstructive surgery: a systematic review of 277 reported clinical cases. Microsurgery. 2012, 32:240-50.

43. Nguyen MQ., Crosby MA., Skoracki RJ., Hanasono MM. Outcomes of flap salvage with medicinal leech therapy. Microsurgery. 2012, 32:351-7.

44. Elyassi AR., Terres J., Rowshan HH. Medicinal leech therapy on head and neck patients: a review of literature and proposed protocol. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol. 2013, 116:167-72.

45. Kashiwagi K., Hashimoto I., Abe Y., Kotsu K., Yamano M., Nakanishi H. Quantitative analysis of hemodynamics of congested island flaps under leech therapy. J Med Invest. 2013, 60:213-20.

46. Conforti ML., Connor NP., Heisey DM., et al: Evaluation of performance characteristics of the medicinal leech (Hirudo medicinalis) for the treatment of venous congestion. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2002, 109:228-35.

47. Mackay DR., Manders EK., Saggers GC., Banducci DR., Prinsloo J., Klugman K. Aeromonas species isolated from medicinal leeches. Ann Plast Surg. 1999, 42:275-9.

48. Mumcuoglu KY. Recommendations for the use of leeches in reconstructive plastic surgery. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2014, ID 205929. https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/205929

49. Schlaudraff KU., Bezzola T., Montandon D., Pepper MS., Pittet B. Mixed arterio-venous insufficiency in random skin flaps in the rat: is the application of medicinal leeches beneficial? J Surg Res. 2008, 150:85-91.

50. Herlin C., Sinna R., Hamoui M., Canovas F., Captier G., Chaput B. Distal lower extremity coverage by distally based sural flaps: Methods to increase their vascular reliability. Ann Chir Plast Esthet. 2017, 62:45-54.

51. Anavekar NS., Lim E., Johnston A., Findlay M., Hunter-Smith DJ. Minimally invasive late free flap salvage: indications, efficacy and implications for reconstructive microsurgeons. J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg. 2011, 64:1517-20.

52. Whitaker IS., Josty IC., Hawkins S., et al. Medicinal leeches and the microsurgeon: a four-year study, clinical series and risk benefit review. Microsurgery. 2011, 31:281-7.

53. Cattoir V., Poirel L., Aubert C., Soussy C-J., Nordmann P. Unexpected occurrence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance determinants in environmental Aeromonas spp. Emerging Infect Dis. 2008, 14:231-7.

54. Lim CL. Successful transfer of ‘‘free’’ microvascular superficial temporal artery flap with no obvious venous drainage and use of leeches for reducing venous congestion: Case report. Microsurgery. 1986, 7:87-8.

55. Stupka I., Dvorak Z., Vesely J., Novak P., Perrotta RE., Lombardo GA. Reconstruction of a Nose Bitten and Eaten by a Dog: A Ten-Year Follow-up of a Bitten-Off Nose Replantation Performed on an Eleven-Year-Old Boy. Ann Plast Surg. 2015, 75:585-7.

56. de Chalain TM. Exploring the use of the medicinal leech: a clinical risk-benefit analysis. J. Reconstr. Microsurg. 1996, 12:165-72.

57. Trovato MJ., Agarwal JP. Successful replantation of the ear as a venous flap. Ann. Plast. Surg. 2008, 61:164-8.

58. Riede F., Koenen W., Goerdt S., et al. Medicinal leeches for the treatment of venous congestion and hematoma after plastic reconstructive surgery. J Dtsch Dermatol Ges. 2010, 8: 881-8.

59. Kubo T., Yano K., Hosokawa K. Management of flaps with compromised venous outflow in head and neck microsurgical reconstruction. Microsurgery. 2002, 22:391-5.

60. Foucher G., Henderson MR., Maneau M. Distal digital replantation: One of the best indications for microsurgery. Int J Microsurg. 1981, 3:263-70.

61. Hullett JS., Spinnato GG., Ziccardi V. Treatment of an ear laceration with adjunctive leech therapy: A case report. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2007, 65:2112-14.

Chirurgie plastická Ortopedie Popáleninová medicína Traumatologie

Článek vyšel v časopise

Acta chirurgiae plasticae

Číslo 3-4

2020 Číslo 3-4

Nejčtenější v tomto čísle
Kurzy Podcasty Doporučená témata Časopisy
Zapomenuté heslo

Nemáte účet?  Registrujte se

Zapomenuté heslo

Zadejte e-mailovou adresu, se kterou jste vytvářel(a) účet, budou Vám na ni zaslány informace k nastavení nového hesla.


Nemáte účet?  Registrujte se