The association of skin autofluorescence with cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality in persons with chronic kidney disease stage 3: A prospective cohort study

Autoři: Adam Shardlow aff001;  Natasha J. McIntyre aff001;  Nitin V. Kolhe aff002;  Laura B. Nellums aff003;  Richard J. Fluck aff002;  Christopher W. McIntyre aff004;  Maarten W. Taal aff001
Působiště autorů: Centre for Kidney Research and Innovation, Division of Medical Sciences and Graduate Entry Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Nottingham, Derby, United Kingdom aff001;  Renal Unit, Royal Derby Hospital, Derby, United Kingdom aff002;  Division of Epidemiology and Public Health, School of Medicine, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, United Kingdom aff003;  Division of Nephrology, Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada aff004;  Department of Nephrology, The Victoria Hospital, London Health Sciences Centre, London, Ontario, Canada aff005
Vyšlo v časopise: The association of skin autofluorescence with cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality in persons with chronic kidney disease stage 3: A prospective cohort study. PLoS Med 17(7): e32767. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1003163
Kategorie: Research Article
doi: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1003163



Tissue advanced glycation end product (AGE) accumulation has been proposed as a marker of cumulative metabolic stress that can be assessed noninvasively by measurement of skin autofluorescence (SAF). In persons on haemodialysis, SAF is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular events (CVEs) and all-cause mortality (ACM), but data at earlier stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD) are inconclusive. We investigated SAF as a risk factor for CVEs and ACM in a prospective study of persons with CKD stage 3.

Methods and findings

Participants with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) 59 to 30 mL/min/1.73 m2 on two consecutive previous blood tests were recruited from 32 primary care practices across Derbyshire, United Kingdom between 2008 and 2010. SAF was measured in participants with CKD stage 3 at baseline, 1, and 5 years using an AGE reader (DiagnOptics). Data on hospital admissions with CVEs (based on international classification of diseases [ICD]-10 coding) and deaths were obtained from NHS Digital. Cox proportional hazards models were used to investigate baseline variables associated with CVEs and ACM. A total of 1,707 of 1,741 participants with SAF readings at baseline were included in this analysis: The mean (± SD) age was 72.9 ± 9.0 years; 1,036 (60.7%) were female, 1,681 (98.5%) were of white ethnicity, and mean (±SD) eGFR was 53.5 ± 11.9 mL/min/1.73 m2. We observed 319 deaths and 590 CVEs during a mean of 6.0 ± 1.5 and 5.1 ± 2.2 years of observation, respectively. Higher baseline SAF was an independent risk factor for CVEs (hazard ratio [HR] 1.12 per SD, 95% CI 1.03–1.22, p = 0.01) and ACM (HR 1.16, 95% CI 1.03–1.30, p = 0.01). Additionally, increase in SAF over 1 year was independently associated with subsequent CVEs (HR 1.11 per SD, 95% CI 1.00–1.22; p = 0.04) and ACM (HR 1.24, 95% CI 1.09–1.41, p = 0.001). We relied on ICD-10 codes to identify hospital admissions with CVEs, and there may therefore have been some misclassification.


We have identified SAF as an independent risk factor for CVE and ACM in persons with early CKD. These findings suggest that interventions to reduce AGE accumulation, such as dietary AGE restriction, may reduce cardiovascular risk in CKD, but this requires testing in prospective randomised trials. Our findings may not be applicable to more ethnically diverse or younger populations.

Klíčová slova:

Albumins – Blood pressure – Cardiovascular diseases – Creatinine – diabetes mellitus – Chronic kidney disease – Medical risk factors – Urine


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2020 Číslo 7

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