Characterisation of canine KCNIP4: A novel gene for cerebellar ataxia identified by whole-genome sequencing two affected Norwegian Buhund dogs

Autoři: Christopher A. Jenkins aff001;  Lajos Kalmar aff002;  Kaspar Matiasek aff003;  Lorenzo Mari aff004;  Kaisa Kyöstilä aff005;  Hannes Lohi aff005;  Ellen C. Schofield aff001;  Cathryn S. Mellersh aff001;  Luisa De Risio aff004;  Sally L. Ricketts aff001
Působiště autorů: Kennel Club Genetics Centre, Animal Health Trust, Newmarket, Suffolk, United Kingdom aff001;  Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, Cambridgeshire, United Kingdom aff002;  Section of Clinical & Comparative Neuropathology, Centre for Clinical Veterinary Medicine, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität Munich, München, Germany aff003;  Neurology/Neurosurgery Service, Centre for Small Animal Studies, Animal Health Trust, Newmarket, Suffolk, United Kingdom aff004;  Department of Veterinary Biosciences, and Department of Medical and Clinical Genetics, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland aff005;  Folkhälsan Research Center, Helsinki, Finland aff006
Vyšlo v časopise: Characterisation of canine KCNIP4: A novel gene for cerebellar ataxia identified by whole-genome sequencing two affected Norwegian Buhund dogs. PLoS Genet 16(1): e32767. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1008527
Kategorie: Research Article
doi: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1008527


A form of hereditary cerebellar ataxia has recently been described in the Norwegian Buhund dog breed. This study aimed to identify the genetic cause of the disease. Whole-genome sequencing of two Norwegian Buhund siblings diagnosed with progressive cerebellar ataxia was carried out, and sequences compared with 405 whole genome sequences of dogs of other breeds to filter benign common variants. Nine variants predicted to be deleterious segregated among the genomes in concordance with an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance, only one of which segregated within the breed when genotyped in additional Norwegian Buhunds. In total this variant was assessed in 802 whole genome sequences, and genotyped in an additional 505 unaffected dogs (including 146 Buhunds), and only four affected Norwegian Buhunds were homozygous for the variant. The variant identified, a T to C single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) (NC_006585.3:g.88890674T>C), is predicted to cause a tryptophan to arginine substitution in a highly conserved region of the potassium voltage-gated channel interacting protein KCNIP4. This gene has not been implicated previously in hereditary ataxia in any species. Evaluation of KCNIP4 protein expression through western blot and immunohistochemical analysis using cerebellum tissue of affected and control dogs demonstrated that the mutation causes a dramatic reduction of KCNIP4 protein expression. The expression of alternative KCNIP4 transcripts within the canine cerebellum, and regional differences in KCNIP4 protein expression, were characterised through RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry respectively. The voltage-gated potassium channel protein KCND3 has previously been implicated in spinocerebellar ataxia, and our findings suggest that the Kv4 channel complex KCNIP accessory subunits also have an essential role in voltage-gated potassium channel function in the cerebellum and should be investigated as potential candidate genes for cerebellar ataxia in future studies in other species.

Klíčová slova:

Cerebellum – Dogs – Genome analysis – Mammalian genomics – Norwegian people – Pets and companion animals – Ataxia – Cerebellar ataxia


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