Health Risks andAdvantages of Plant Proteins
R. Zachoval; M. Urban; J. Heráček; M. Záleský; J. Kuncová; M. Lukeš
Ústav preventívnej a klinickej medicíny, Bratislava, riaditeľ doc. MUDr. Š. Nyulassy, DrSc. Nemocnica Ministerstva obrany, Bratislava, riaditeľ plk. MUDr. J. Mistrík
Vyšlo v časopise:
Prakt. Lék. 2004; (2): 72-78
The composition of plant proteins differs from that of animal proteins. Plantproteins have a greatly reduced content of the essential amino acids methionineand lysine, and some non-essential amino acids are present in larger amounts.The authors assessed from food frequency questionnaires the amino acid status A finding of hypocarnitinaemia was recorded in 33% vegans vs. 3% omnivores andglutathione values below the limit were recorded in 30%persons on an alternativediet as compared with 5% on a traditional diet.The arginine and glycine intake ofvegans was significantly increased and the serine and alanine intake is insignifi-cantly higher. Arginine and pyruvate precursors have a protective effect. Theyreduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases and cancer by stimulating glucagonsecretion. The discrepancy of a vegan diet is the risk of inadequate methionineintake and lower levels of its metabolites and its benefit is a higher intake ofnon-essential amino acids.of adults on an alternative diet (vegans, n=33) as compared with a traditional diet(omnivores, n=37).To facilitate comparison, persons with equal percentage intakeof the recommended protein allowance were investigated - plant protein only invegans, and a ratio of 1:1 of plant and animal proteins in omnivores. The intakeof all essential amino acids is significantly lower in vegans. The value of methionine + cystine 1.21 g is 67% of the lower borderline of the interval of optimalreguirement vs. 110% in omnivores (1.98 g).The lysine and tryptophan intake iswithin the interval of optimal reguirement, the other essential amino acids areslightly higher. In omnivores the intake of all essential amino acids is 1.1-1.9 timeshigher than the upper limit of optimal reguirement. The authors recorded hypoproteinaemia in 18% vegans vs. 0% in omnivores. The biosynthesis of carnitineand glutathione where methionine acts as substrate is also adversely influenced.
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