1. Barreto, RL., de Jesus Simões, M., Amed, AM., et al. Stavudine effects on rat pregnancy outcome. J Obstet Gynaecol Res, 2004, 30, p. 242–245.
2. Best, BM., Stek, AM., Mirochnick, M., et al. Lopinavir tablet pharmacokinetics with an increased dose during pregnancy.J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr, 2010, 54, p. 381–388.
3. Bierman, WF., van Vonderen, MG., Veldkamp, AI., et al. The lopinavir/ritonavir-associated rise in lipids is not related to lopinavir or ritonavir plasma concentration. Antivir Ther, 2011, 16, p. 647–655.
4. Brazil. Ministry of Health. Epidemiological Bulletin Year 1 – No 01, December, 2012. Available in website: http://aids.gov.br. Accessed November 25, 2013.
5. Brazil. Ministry of Health. Epidemiological Bulletin Year VII – No 01, December, 2010. Available in website: http://aids.gov.br. Accessed November 25, 2013.
6. Carr, A., Samaras, K., Burton, S., et al. A syndrome of peripheral lipodytrophy, hyperlipidaemia and insulin resistance in patients receiving HIV protease inhititors. AIDS, 2003, 17, F51–F58.
7. Carvalho, AM., Oliveira-Filho, RM., Simões, MJ., et al. Effect of chronic ritonavir administration on pregnant rats and their fetuses. Clin Exp Obst Gyn, 2004, 31, p. 229–231.
8. Carvalho, LP., Wagner, A., Simões, RS., et al. Effects of combined zidovudine-lopinavir-ritonavir therapy during rat pregnancy. Clin Exp Obstet Gynecol, 2013, 40, p. 345–349.
9. Chouquet, C., Burgard, M., Richardson, S., et al. Timing of mother-to-child HIV-1 transmission and diagnosis of infection based on polymerase chain reaction in the neonatal period by a non-parametric method. AIDS, 1997, 11, p. 1183–1184.
10. Cohan, D. Perinatal HIV: special considerations. Top HIV Med, 2003, 11, p. 200–213.
11. Connor, EM., Sperling, RS., Gelber, R., et al. Reduction of maternal-infant transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 with zidovudine treatment. Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group Protocol 076 Study Group. N Engl J Med, 1994, 331, p. 1173–1180.
12. Cunha, AM., Hagemann, CC., Simões, RS., et al. Effects of lopinavir-ritonavir combined therapy during the rat pregnancy. Morphological and biochemical aspects. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol, 2007, 133, p. 60–63.
13. De Clercq, E. Antiretroviral drugs. Curr Opin Pharmacol 2010, 10, p. 507–515.
14. Germinario, RJ. Anti-retroviral protease inhibitors – ‘a two edge sword?’ IUBMB Life, 2003, 55, p. 67–70.
15. Gros, P., Ben Niriah, YB., Croop, JM., Housman, DE. Isolation and expression of a complementary DNA that confers multidrug resistance. Nature, 1986, 323, p. 728–731.
16. Hamilton, JB., Wolfe, JM. The effect of male hormone substance upon birth and prenatal development in the rat. Anat Rec, 1938, 70, p. 433.
17. Higgins, CF. ABC transporters: from microorganisms to man. Ann Rev Cell Biol, 1992, 8, p. 67–113.
18. Juliano, RL., Ling, V. A surface glycoprotein modulating drug permeability in Chinese hamster ovary cell mutants. Biochim Biophys Acta, 1976, 455, p. 152–162.
19. Kageyama, M., Namiki, H., Fukushima, H., et al. Effect of chronic administration of ritonavir on function of cytochrome P450 3A and glycoprotein in rats. Biol Pharms Bull, 2005, 28, p. 130–137.
20. Lankas, GR., Wise, LD., Cartwright, ME., et al. Placental P-glycoprotein deficiency enhances susceptibility to chemically induced birth defects in mice. Reprod Toxicol 1998, 12, p. 457–463.
21. Leonard, E., McConisey, G. Metabolic complications of antiretroviral therapy in children. Ped Infect Dis J, 2003, 22, p. 77–84.
22. Loutfy, MR., Walmsley, SL. Treatment of HIV infection in pregnant women: antiretroviral management options. Drugs, 2004 ,64, p. 471–488.
23. Minkoff, HL. Human immunodeficiency virus infection in pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol, 2003, 101, p. 797–810.
24. Olfert, ED., Cross, BM., McWilliam, AA. Canadian Council on Animal Care/Guide to the Care and Use of Experimental Animals. 2nd ed. Bradda Printing Services: Ottawa, Ontario, Canada 1993.
25. Pavek, P., Staud, F., Fendrich, Z., et al. Examination of functional activity of P-glycoprotein in the rat placental barrier using rhodamine 123. J Pharmacol Exp Ther, 2003, 305, p. 1239–1250.
26. Pereira Fontes, TM., Simões, RS., Martins Oliveira, FH.,et al. Extended administration of the association of zidovudine plus ritonavir during rat pregnancy: maternal and fetal effects. Clin Exp Obstet Gynecol, 2007, 34, p. 175–178.
27. Quintino, MP., Nakamura, MU., Simões, MJ., et al. Chronic use of indinavir in albino rat pregnancy (Rattus norvegicus albinus, Rodentia, Mammalia): Biological assay. J Obstet Gynaecol Res, 2011, 37, p. 1212–1215.
28. Schinkel, AH. Disruption of the mouse mdr 1a P-glycoprotein gene leads to a deficiency in the blood-brain barrier and to increased sensitivity to drugs. Cell, 1994, 77, p. 491–502.
29. Smit, JW., Huisman, MT., van Tellingen, O., et al. Absence or pharmacological blocking of placental P-glycoprotein profoundly increases fetal exposure. J Clin Invest, 1999, 104, p. 1441–1447.
30. Ter Heine, R., Van Waterschoot, RA., Keizer, RJ., et al. An integrated pharmacokinetic model for the influence of CYP3A4 expression on the in vivo disposition of lopinavir and its modulation by ritonavir. J Pharm Sci, 2011, 100, p. 2508–2515.
31. Tuomala, RE., Shapiro, DE., Mofenson, LM., et al. Anti-retroviral therapy during pregnancy and the risk of an adverse outcome. N Engl J Med, 2002, 346, p. 1863–1870.
32. Wagner, A., Nakamura, MU., Simões, RS., et al. Chronic action of association of zidovudine, lamivudine and ritonavir on pregnant rats. A biologic assay. Clin Exp Obstet Gynecol, 2011, 38, p. 28–32.
33. Walmsley, S,, Bernstein, B., King, M., et al. Lopinavir-Ritonavir versus Nelfinavir for the initial treatment of HIV Infection. N Engl J Med, 2002, 346, p. 2039–2046.