1. UNICEF WHO (2013) Progress on sanitation and drinking-water - 2013 update. Geneva: World Health Organization and UNICEF.
2. WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation (JMP) (2011) Drinking Water Equity, Safety and Sustainability: Thematic Report on Drinking Water 2011. Geneva: World Health Organization and UNICEF.
3. Parkar A, Gosling L (2011) Equity and Inclusion in Sanitation and Hygiene in Africa. 3rd AfricanSan Conference. Kigali, Rwanda.
4. KhanMM, KramerA, KhandokerA, Prufer-KramerL, IslamA (2011) Trends in sociodemographic and health-related indicators in Bangladesh, 1993–2007: will inequities persist? Bull World Health Organ 89: 583–593.
5. BailieRS, carsonBE, McDonalsEL (2004) Water supply and sanitation in remote indigenous communities–priorities for health development. Aust N Z J Public Health 28: 409–414.
6. SoaresLC, GriesingerMO, DachsJN, BittnerMA, TavaresS (2002) Inequities in access to and use of drinking water services in Latin America and the Caribbean. Rev Panam Salud Publica 11: 386–396.
7. RheingansR, CummingO, AndrewsonJ, ShowalterJ (2012) Exploring inequalities in sanitation-related disease burden and estimating the potential impacts of pro-poor targeting. Sanitation and Hygiene Applied Reserach for Equity Available: http://www.shareresearch.org/LocalResources/EquityResearchReport.pdf.
8. FehrA, SahinM, FreemanMC (2013) Sub-national Inequities in Philippine Water Access Associated with Poverty and Water Potential. J WASH Dev 3: 638–645.
9. UNICEF WHO (2012) Progress on drinking-water and sanitation: 2012 update. Geneva: World Health Organization and UNICEF.
10. LimSS, VosT, FlaxmanAD, DanaeiG, ShibuyaK, et al. (2012) A comparative risk assessment of burden of disease and injury attributable to 67 risk factors and risk factor clusters in 21 regions, 1990–2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. Lancet 380: 2224–2260.
11. Lopez AD, Mathers CD, Ezzati M, Jamison DT, Murray CJL (2006) Global Burden of Disease and Risk Factors. Washington DC: World Bank and Oxford University Press.
12. BartramJ, CairncrossS (2010) Hygiene, sanitation and water: forgotten foundations of health. PLoS Med 7: e1000367.
13. ZiegelbauerK, SpeichB, MausezahlM, BosR, KeiserJ, et al. (2012) Effect of sanitation on soil-transmitted helminth infection: systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS Med 9: e1001162.
14. EsreySA, PotashJB, RobertsL, ShiffC (1991) Effects of improved water supply and sanitation on ascariasis, diarrhoea, dracunculiasis, hookworm infection, schistosomiasis, and trachoma. Bull World Health Organ 69: 609–621.
15. EmersonPM, LindsaySW, AlexanderN, BahM, DibbaSM, et al. (2004) Role of flies and provision of latrines in trachoma control: cluster-randomised controlled trial. Lancet 363: 1093–1098.
16. StocksME, OgdenS, HaddedD, AddissDG, McGuireC, FreemanMC (2014) Effect of water, sanitation and hygiene on the prevention of trachoma: a systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS Med 11: e1001605.
17. SingerB, de CastroMC (2007) Bridges to sustainable tropical health. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 104: 16038–16043.
18. SpiegelJM, DharamsiS, WasanKMYA, SingerB, HotezPJ, et al. (2010) Which new approaches to tackling neglected tropical diseases show promise? PLoS Med 7: e1000255.
19. World Health Organization (2013) Sustaining the drive to overcome the global impact of neglected tropical diseases. Second WHO report on neglected tropical diseases. Geneva, Switzerland: World Heath Organization.
20. NoorAM, AminAA, AkhwaleWS, SnowRW (2007) Increasing coverage and decreasing inequity in insecticide-treated bed net use among rural Kenyan children. PLoS Med 4: e255.
21. Soares MagalhãesRJ, ClementsACA (2011) Mapping the Risk of Anaemia in Preschool-Age Children: The Contribution of Malnutrition, Malaria, and Helminth Infections in West Africa. PLoS Med 8: e1000438.
22. NubeM, SonneveldBG (2005) The geographical distribution of underweight children in Africa. Bull World Health Organ 83: 764–770.
23. Rao JNK (2003) Small area estimation Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
24. Gomez-RubioV, BestN, LiG, ClarkeP (2010) Bayesian statistics for small area estimation. Imperial College London Available: http://eprints.ncrm.ac.uk/1686/1/BayesianSAE.pdf.
25. JiangJ, LahiriP (2006) Mixed model prediction and small area estimation. Test 15: 1–96.
26. SinghBB, ShuklaGK, KunduD (2005) Spatio-temporal models in small area estimation. Survey Method 31: 183–196.
27. BestN, RichardsonS, ThomsonA (2005) A comparison of Bayesian spatial models for disease mappping. Stat Method Med Res 14: 35–59.
28. LuhJ, BaumR, BartramJ (2013) Equity in water and sanitation: developing an index to measure progressive realisation of the human right. Int J Hyg Environ Health 216: 662–671.
29. World Health Organization, UNICEF (2006) Core questions on drinking water and sanitation for household interviews. Geneva: World Health Organization and UNICEF.
30. United Nations (2003) Indicators for monitoring the Millennium Development Goals: definitions, rationale, concepts and sources. ST/ESA/STAT/SER.F/95. United Nations Publication
31. SALB The Second Administrative Level Boundaries data set project. Available: http://salbgeonetwork.grid.unep.ch/geonetwork/srv/en/main.home
32. The WorldPop Project. High resolution, contemporary data on human population distributions. Available: http://www.worldpop.org.uk
33. LinardC, GilbertM, SnowRW, NoorAM, TatemAJ (2012) Population Distribution, Settlement Patterns and Accessibility across Africa in 2010. PLoS ONE 7: e31743.
34. UNPD World urbanization prospects: the 2011 revision population database. New York: United Nations Population Division (UNDP).
35. LunnDJ, ThomasA, BestN, SpiegelhalterD (2000) WinBUGS - a Bayesian modelling framework: concepts, structure, and extensibility. Stat Comp 10: 325–337.
36. Banerjee S, Carlin BP, Gelfand AE (2004) Hierarchical Modeling and Analysis for Spatial Data. Boca Raton, Florida: Chapman & Hall/CRC.
37. WagstaffA, PaciP, van DoorslaerE (1991) On the measurement of inequalities in health. Soc Sci Med 33: 545–557.
38. Pan American Health Organisation (2001) Measuring Health Inequalities: Gini Coefficient and Concentration Index. Epidemiol Bull PAHO 22: 3–4.
39. Schwanke KhiljiSU, RudgeJW, DrakeT, ChavezI, BorinK, et al. (2013) Distribution of selected healthcare resources for influenza pandemic response in Cambodia. Int J Equity Health 12: 82.
40. GreenG, YuBN, MarrieRA (2013) Exploring the implications of small-area variation in the incidence of multiple sclerosis. Am J Epidemiol 178: 1059–1066.
41. Jamison DT, Jha P, Malhotra V, Verguet S (2013) Human health: the twentieth century transformation of health - its magnitude and value. In: Lomborg B, editor. How much have global problems cost the world. New York: Cambridge University Press. pp. 214.
42. The Friends of Water, UNICEF, Special Rapportueur on the human right to safe drinking water and sanitation OHCHR (2013) Joint statement. Measuring inequalities in the post-2015 development agenda. New York
43. Taylor-RobinsonDC, MaayanN, Soares-WeiserK, DoneganS, GarnerP (2012) Deworming drugs for soil-transmitted intestinal worms in children: effects on nutritional indicators, haemoglobin and school performance. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 7: CD000371.
44. Hutton G, Haller L (2004) Evaluation of the costs and benefits of water and sanitation improvements at the global level Geneva: World Health Organization.
45. HuttonG, HallerL, BartramJ (2007) Global Cost-Benefit Analysis of Water Supply and Sanitation Interventions. J Water Health 5: 481–502.
46. WolfJ, BonjourS, Pruss-UstunA (2013) An exploration of multilevel modelling for estimating access to drinking-water and sanitation. J Water Health 11: 64–77.
47. BundyDA, KremerM, BleakleyH, JukesMC, MiguelE (2009) Deworming and development: asking the right questions, asking the questions right. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 3: e362.
48. MurrayCJL, VosT, LozanoR, NaghaviM, FlaxmanAD, et al. (2012) Disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) for 291 diseases and injuries in 21 regions, 1990—2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. Lancet 380: 2197–2223.
49. Laxminarayan R, Chow J, Shahid–Salles SA (2006) Intervention Cost–Effectiveness: Overview of Main Messages. In: Jamison DT, Breman JG, Measham AR, Alleyne C, Claeson M et al.., editors. Disease Control Priorities in Developing Countries, 2nd Edition. New York Oxford University Press. pp. 35–86.
50. MacDonaldAM, BonsorHC, DochartaighBEO, TaylorRG (2012) Quantitative maps of groundwater resources in Africa. Environ Res Let 7: 024009.
51. Special Rapportueur on the human right to safe drinking water and sanitation (2012) Integrating non-discrimination and equality into the post-2015 development agenda for water, sanitation and hygiene. Available: http://www.ohchr.org/en/Issues/WaterAndSanitation/SRWater/Pages/AnnualReports.aspx
52. BarrosAJD, VictoraCG (2013) Measuring coverage in MNCH: determining and interpreting inequalities in coverage of maternal, newborn and child health interventions. PLoS Med 10: e1001390.
53. HarperS, KingNB, MeersmanSC, ReichmanME, BreenN, et al. (2010) Implicit value judgements in the measurement of health inequality. Milbank Q 88: 4–29.
54. CongdonP, CamposRM, CurtisSE, SouthallHR, GregoryIN, et al. (2001) Quantifying and explaining changes in geographical inequality of infant mortality in England and Wales since the 1890s. Int J Popn Geog 7: 35–51.
55. AnselmiL, FernandesQF, HansonK, LagardeM (2013) Accounting for geograhpical inequalities in the assessment of equity in health care: a benefit incidence analysis. Lancet 381: S9.
56. LowA, LowA (2004) Measuring the gap: quantifying and comparing local health inequalities. J Public Health 26: 388–395.
57. Brown (1994) Using Gini-style indices to evaluate the spatial patterns of health practitioners: theoretical considerations and an application based on Alberta data. Soc Sci Med 38: 1243–1256.
58. ReadingR, ColverA, OpenshawS, JarvisS (1994) Do interventions that improve immunisation uptake also reduce social inequalities in uptake? BMJ 308: 1142–1144.
59. BarrLM, PresseyRL, FullerRA, SeganDB, McDonald-MaddenE, et al. (2011) A new way to measure the World's protected area coverage. PLoS ONE 6: e24707.
60. ClasenT, FabiniD, BoissonS, TanejaJ, SongJ, et al. (2012) Making sanitation count: developing and testing a device for assessing latrine use in low-income settings. Environ Sci Technol 46: 3295–3303.
61. ClasenTF (2012) Millennium Development Goals water target claim exaggerates achievement. Trop Med Int Health 17: 1178–1180.
62. WrightJ, GundryS, ConroyR (2004) Household drinking water in developing countries: a systematic review of microbiological contamination between source and point-of-use. Trop Med Int Health 9: 106–117.
63. Tadesse D, Desta A, Geyid A, Girma W, Fisseha S, et al.. (2010) Rapid assessment of drinking-water quality in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia. Country report of the pilot project implementation in 2004–2005. Geneva: World Health Organization and UNICEF.
64. WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation (JMP) (2010) JMP Technical Task Force Meeting on Monitoring Drinking-water Quality. Geneva: World Health Organization and UNICEF.
65. HunterPR, MacDonaldAM, CarterRC (2010) Water Supply and Health. PLoS Med 7: e1000361.
66. WangX, HunterPR (2010) Short report: systematic review and meta-analysis of the association between self-reported diarrhoeal disease and distance from home water source. Am J Trop Med Hyg 83: 582–584.
67. BakerSM, EnsinkJH (2012) Helminth transmission in simple pit latrines. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 106: 709–710.
68. BapatM, AgarwalI (2003) Our needs, our priorities; women and men from the slums in Mumbai and Pune talk about their needs for water and sanitation. Environ Urban 15: 71–86.
69. World Bank (2006) Kenya, Inside Informality: Poverty, Jobs, Housing and Services in Nairobi's Slums (No. 36347-KE). Water and Urban Unit 1, Africa Region, World Bank
70. Amnesty International (2010) Kenya: Insecurity and Indignity: Women's Experiences in the Slums of Nairobi, Kenya. London, UK: Amnesty International Publications.
71. MontgomeryMA, DesaiMM, ElimelechM (2010) Comparing the effectiveness of shared versus private latrines in preventing trachoma in rural Tanzania. Am J Trop Med Hyg 82: 693–695.
72. TumwebazeIK, OrachCG, NiwagabaC, LuthiC, MoslerHJ (2013) Sanitation facilities in Kampala slums, Uganda: users' satisfaction and determinant factors. Int J Environ Health Res 23: 191–204.
73. WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation (JMP) (2010) JMP Technical Task Force Meeting on Sanitation and Methods for Estimating Progress. Geneva: World Health Organization and UNICEF.
74. Waddington H, Snilstveit B, White H, Fewtrell L (2009) Water, sanitation and hygiene interventions to combat diarrhoea in developing countries. New Delhi, India: International Initiative for Impact Evaluation. p 119.
75. PullanRL, SturrockHJW, Soares MagalhaesRJ, ClementsACA, BrookerSJ (2012) Spatial parasite ecology and epidemiology: a review of methods and applications. Parasitol 139: 1870–1887.
76. SchmidlinT, HurlimannE, SilueKD, YapiRB, HoungbedjiC, et al. (2013) Effects of Hygiene and Defecation Behavior on Helminths and Intestinal Protozoa Infections in Taabo, Côte d'Ivoire. PLoS ONE 8: e65722.
77. PullanRL, BrookerSJ (2012) The global limits and population at risk of soil-transmitted helminth infections in 2010. Parasit Vectors 5: 81.
78. SmithJL, FlueckigerRM, HooperPJ, PolackS, CromwellEA, et al. (2013) The geographical distribution and burden of trachoma in Africa. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 7: e2359.
79. SchurN, HurlimannE, GarbaA, TraoreMS, NdirO, et al. (2011) Geostatistical Model-Based Estimates of Schistosomiasis Prevalence among Individuals Aged</ = 20 Years in West Africa. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 5: e1194.
80. MandersonL, Aagaard-HansenJ, AlloteyP, GyapongM, SommerfeldJ (2009) Social research on neglected diseases of poverty: Continuing and emerging themes. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 3: e332.
81. WaldmanRJ, MintzED, PapowitzHE (2013) The cure for cholera: improving access to safe water and sanitation. N Engl J Med 368: 592–594.
82. SepulvedaJ, ValdespinoJL, Garcia-GarciaL (2006) Cholera in Mexico: the paradoxical benefits of the last pandemic. Int J Infect Dis 10: 4–13.
83. Roses PeriagoM, FriedenTR, TapperoJW, De CockKM, AasenB, et al. (2012) Elimination of cholera transmission in Haiti and the Dominican Republic. Lancet 379: e12–e13.
84. DangourAD, WatsonL, CummingO, BoissonS, CheY, et al. (2013) Interventions to improve water quality and supply, sanitation and hygiene practices, and their effects on the nutritional status of children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 8: CD009382.
85. NgondiJM, GebreT, ShargieEB, AdamuL, TeferiT, et al. (2010) Estimation of effects of community intervention with antibiotics, facial cleanliness, and environmental improvement (A,F,E) in five districts of Ethiopia hyperendemic for trachoma. Br J Ophthalmol 94: 278–281.
86. NgondiJM, MatthewsF, ReacherM, BabaS, BrayneC, et al. (2008) Associations between active trachoma and community intervention with Antibiotics, Facial cleanliness, and Environmental improvement (A,F,E). PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2: e229.
87. World Health Organization (2012) Eliminating soil-transmited helminthiases as a public health problem in children. Progress report 2001–2010 and strategic plan 2010–2020. Geneva: World Health Organization.
88. UtzingerJ, RasoG, BrookerSJ, de SavignyD, TannerM, et al. (2009) Schistosomiasis and neglected tropical diseases: towards integrated and sustainable control and a work of caution. Parasitol 136: 1859–1874.
89. FreemanMC, OgdenS, JacobsonJ, AbbottD, AddissDG, et al. (2013) Integration of water, sanitation and hygiene for the prevention and control of neglected tropical diseases: a rationale for inter-sectoral collaboration. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 7: e2439.
90. UN System Task Team on the post-2015 UN development agenda (2013) Statistics and indicators for the post-2015 development agenda. New York: United Nations.
91. WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme (JMP) for Water Supply and Sanitation. Available: http://www.wssinfo.org/fileadmin/user_upload/resources/1268174016-JMP_Core_Questions.pdf.