Účinek salonní perkusní pistole na náhrady lebečních kostí
Cílem práce bylo zjistit, zda salonní perkusní pistole, považovaná za neletální zbraň, může být životu nebezpečná i při zásahu neurokrania v místech, která nejsou považována za „locus minoris resistentiae“. Oproti běžně i mezi odborníky známému názoru, že ohrožení života nebo vážná poruchy zdraví může nastat jenom po zásahu citlivých částí hlavy (oko, ucho, nosní a ústní dutina), bylo experimentálně na náhradních materiálech zjištěno, že stačí do zbraně nabít i zlomek běžného množství prachové náplně jako je 100 mg a střela kalibru 4,5 mm naprosto spolehlivě do lebky pronikne. Perkusní salonní pistole, běžně považovaná za neletální zbraň, může být tedy i v situacích, o nichž to nikdo doposud nepředpokládal, životu nebezpečná.
J. Krajsa1; M. Hirt1; Z. Novák2
Authors place of work:
Institute of Forensic Medicine, Faculty of Medicine Masaryk University and St. Anne’s University Hospitál, Brno1; Clinic od Neurosurgery, Faculty of Medicine Masaryk University and St. Anne’s University Hospital, Brno2
Published in the journal:
Soud Lék., 55, 2010, No. 4, p. 54-55
The aim of this paper was to determine if the saloon percussion pistol, considered to be a non-lethal weapon, can in fact be dangerous to life even if the neucranium is hit elsewhere than the so-called “locus minoris resistentiae” areas. In the face of specialist opinion that states that life-threatening or serious injury can occur only after a shot to the sensitive parts of the head (eyes, ears, sinus, nasal and oral cavity), it was experimentally determined on replacement materials that if the gun is loaded with just 100mg of gun powder a 4.5mm calibre bullet always penetrates the cranium. Saloon percussion pistols can be dangerous to life in situations that nobly expected till now.
So called ”home
shooting“ handguns were developed as safe weapons for use in enclosed spaces.
During a season when the weather was miserable and wasn‘t good enough for
going into the open these weapons were used for training and sometimes just for
shooting for fun. We come across these percussion guns from the beginning of
the 19th century after the invention of the percussion lock ; home shooting
percussion handguns themselves were popular only for a few subsequent decades.
Despite originals and replicas of muzzle-loading firearms being know, and being
freely available on the market in accordance with the law of the Czech
Republic, home shooting pistols, although also freely available, are quite
unknown. The knowledge of home shooting percussion pistols, is in effect, now
in the 21st century, quite forgotten. We keep to the main hypothesis that the
power of this pistol should be approximately the same as that of the more
We had the
possibility to test a Napoleon Le Page cal. 4,5 mm, fy. Chiappa Firearms
(Fig. 1) percussion home shooting pistol. In all experiments spherical lead
bullets of cal. 4,5 mm were used. In the first part of the experiment (30
shots) only percussion caps made by Dynamite Nobel Germany were used. In the
second part (also 30 shots) a minimum (100 mg) of black gunpowder made by
Explosia Czech Republic was also added. Polyurethane plate coated with rubber
skin (dimension 250 x 250 x 5 mm) was used as imitation skull bone – this
material, by the Swiss company Synbone, is designed to enable reproducible
repeatable ballistics testing. The plate was shot at an angle of 90° from
a distance of 1.0m in all cases.
There were no
penetrations through the polyurethane plate when shooting with the cap (Fig.
2). However, when shooting with the cap and 100mg of extra gunpowder the
polyurethane plate was penetrated in all cases (Fig. 3, 4).
Injuries to the brain even by small calibre (.22)
bullets are described in literature as lethal in 61% of cases; 85% if death
after an initial coma is taken into account . This holds even if the most
modern neurosurgery techniques are applied . The efficiency of the home
shooting percussion pistol was considered in the profession to be dangerous
only in case that the eye, ear, nasal cavity or oral cavity etc. were shot. The
aim of this research is to the answer the question: „Can this weapon be called
lethal after shooting not only locus minoris resistentiae of the cranium?“ e.g.
from the back side through occipital bone. The results of experiments answered
there should not be any serious intracranial injury if only the explosive cap
is used. But our team proved that if anybody, even if it is by mistake or by
wilful act, loads the weapon with a minimum of gunpowder (100 mg) and
shoots the brain part of the head (neurocranium), penetration into the cranial
cavity is almost certain with all the negative effects. Another serious and
a life threatening menace is when the shot penetrates into the abdominal
and/or thoracic cavity, or when the greater limbs’ vessels or sensitive parts
of the neck are injured.
by Research project of the Ministry of Health of the Czech Republic No.