1. DuggalNK, EmermanM (2012) Evolutionary conflicts between viruses and restriction factors shape immunity. Nature reviews Immunology 12: 687–695.
2. HatziioannouT, BieniaszPD (2011) Antiretroviral Restriction Factors. Current opinion in virology 1: 526–532.
3. EsnaultC, HeidmannO, DelebecqueF, DewannieuxM, RibetD, et al. (2005) APOBEC3G cytidine deaminase inhibits retrotransposition of endogenous retroviruses. Nature 433: 430–433.
4. SasadaA, Takaori-KondoA, ShirakawaK, KobayashiM, AbuduA, et al. (2005) APOBEC3G targets human T-cell leukemia virus type 1. Retrovirology 2: 32.
5. SheehyAM, GaddisNC, ChoiJD, MalimMH (2002) Isolation of a human gene that inhibits HIV-1 infection and is suppressed by the viral Vif protein. Nature 418: 646–650.
6. TsugeM, NoguchiC, AkiyamaR, MatsushitaM, KunihiroK, et al. (2010) G to A hypermutation of TT virus. Virus research 149: 211–216.
7. TurelliP, MangeatB, JostS, VianinS, TronoD (2004) Inhibition of hepatitis B virus replication by APOBEC3G. Science 303: 1829.
8. VartanianJP, GuetardD, HenryM, Wain-HobsonS (2008) Evidence for editing of human papillomavirus DNA by APOBEC3 in benign and precancerous lesions. Science 320: 230–233.
9. ZhengYH, IrwinD, KurosuT, TokunagaK, SataT, et al. (2004) Human APOBEC3F is another host factor that blocks human immunodeficiency virus type 1 replication. J Virol 78: 6073–6076.
10. HarrisRS, BishopKN, SheehyAM, CraigHM, Petersen-MahrtSK, et al. (2003) DNA deamination mediates innate immunity to retroviral infection. Cell 113: 803–809.
11. LiddamentMT, BrownWL, SchumacherAJ, HarrisRS (2004) APOBEC3F properties and hypermutation preferences indicate activity against HIV-1 in vivo. Curr Biol 14: 1385–1391.
12. YuQ, KonigR, PillaiS, ChilesK, KearneyM, et al. (2004) Single-strand specificity of APOBEC3G accounts for minus-strand deamination of the HIV genome. Nat Struct Mol Biol 11: 435–442.
13. BishopKN, HolmesRK, SheehyAM, DavidsonNO, ChoSJ, et al. (2004) Cytidine deamination of retroviral DNA by diverse APOBEC proteins. Current biology 14: 1392–1396.
14. LangloisMA, BealeRC, ConticelloSG, NeubergerMS (2005) Mutational comparison of the single-domained APOBEC3C and double-domained APOBEC3F/G anti-retroviral cytidine deaminases provides insight into their DNA target site specificities. Nucleic acids research 33: 1913–1923.
15. RefslandEW, HultquistJF, HarrisRS (2012) Endogenous Origins of HIV-1 G-to-A Hypermutation and Restriction in the Nonpermissive T Cell Line CEM2n. PLoS pathogens 8: e1002800.
16. LecossierD, BouchonnetF, ClavelF, HanceAJ (2003) Hypermutation of HIV-1 DNA in the absence of the Vif protein. Science 300: 1112.
17. MangeatB, TurelliP, CaronG, FriedliM, PerrinL, et al. (2003) Broad antiretroviral defence by human APOBEC3G through lethal editing of nascent reverse transcripts. Nature 424: 99–103.
18. ZhangH, YangB, PomerantzRJ, ZhangC, ArunachalamSC, et al. (2003) The cytidine deaminase CEM15 induces hypermutation in newly synthesized HIV-1 DNA. Nature 424: 94–98.
19. SadlerHA, StengleinMD, HarrisRS, ManskyLM (2010) APOBEC3G contributes to HIV-1 variation through sublethal mutagenesis. Journal of virology 84: 7396–7404.
20. DashPK, GorantlaS, GendelmanHE, KnibbeJ, CasaleGP, et al. (2011) Loss of neuronal integrity during progressive HIV-1 infection of humanized mice. The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 31: 3148–3157.
21. MelkusMW, EstesJD, Padgett-ThomasA, GatlinJ, DentonPW, et al. (2006) Humanized mice mount specific adaptive and innate immune responses to EBV and TSST-1. Nat Med 12: 1316–1322.
22. DentonPW, GarciaJV (2011) Humanized mouse models of HIV infection. AIDS reviews 13: 135–148.
23. ShultzLD, BrehmMA, Garcia-MartinezJV, GreinerDL (2012) Humanized mice for immune system investigation: progress, promise and challenges. Nature reviews Immunology 12: 786–798.
24. DentonPW, EstesJD, SunZ, OthienoFA, WeiBL, et al. (2008) Antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis prevents vaginal transmission of HIV-1 in humanized BLT mice. PLoS Med 5: e16.
25. DentonPW, KriskoJF, PowellDA, MathiasM, KwakYT, et al. (2010) Systemic administration of antiretrovirals prior to exposure prevents rectal and intravenous HIV-1 transmission in humanized BLT mice. PloS one 5: e8829.
26. DentonPW, OlesenR, ChoudharySK, ArchinNM, WahlA, et al. (2012) Generation of HIV latency in humanized BLT mice. Journal of virology 86: 630–634.
27. DentonPW, OthienoF, Martinez-TorresF, ZouW, KriskoJF, et al. (2011) Topically Applied 1% Tenofovir in Humanized BLT Mice Using the CAPRISA 004 Experimental Design Demonstrates Partial Protection from Vaginal HIV Infection Validating the BLT Model for the Evaluation of New Microbicide Candidates. Journal of virology 85: 7582–93.
28. SunZ, DentonPW, EstesJD, OthienoFA, WeiBL, et al. (2007) Intrarectal transmission, systemic infection, and CD4+ T cell depletion in humanized mice infected with HIV-1. J Exp Med 204: 705–714.
29. BerkowitzRD, BeckermanKP, SchallTJ, McCuneJM (1998) CXCR4 and CCR5 expression delineates targets for HIV-1 disruption of T cell differentiation. Journal of immunology 161: 3702–3710.
30. KitchenSG, ZackJA (1999) Distribution of the human immunodeficiency virus coreceptors CXCR4 and CCR5 in fetal lymphoid organs: implications for pathogenesis in utero. AIDS research and human retroviruses 15: 143–148.
31. ZamarchiR, AllavenaP, BorsettiA, StievanoL, ToselloV, et al. (2002) Expression and functional activity of CXCR-4 and CCR-5 chemokine receptors in human thymocytes. Clinical and experimental immunology 127: 321–330.
32. RegoesRR, BonhoefferS (2005) The HIV coreceptor switch: a population dynamical perspective. Trends in microbiology 13: 269–277.
33. InceWL, ZhangL, JiangQ, ArrildtK, SuL, et al. (2010) Evolution of the HIV-1 env gene in the Rag2−/− gammaC−/− humanized mouse model. Journal of virology 84: 2740–2752.
34. SatoK, IzumiT, MisawaN, KobayashiT, YamashitaY, et al. (2010) Remarkable lethal G-to-A mutations in vif-proficient HIV-1 provirus by individual APOBEC3 proteins in humanized mice. Journal of virology 84: 9546–9556.
35. JaniniM, RogersM, BirxDR, McCutchanFE (2001) Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 DNA sequences genetically damaged by hypermutation are often abundant in patient peripheral blood mononuclear cells and may be generated during near-simultaneous infection and activation of CD4(+) T cells. J Virol 75: 7973–7986.
36. KijakGH, JaniniLM, TovanabutraS, Sanders-BuellE, ArroyoMA, et al. (2008) Variable contexts and levels of hypermutation in HIV-1 proviral genomes recovered from primary peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Virology 376: 101–111.
37. PaceC, KellerJ, NolanD, JamesI, GaudieriS, et al. (2006) Population level analysis of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 hypermutation and its relationship with APOBEC3G and vif genetic variation. J Virol 80: 9259–9269.
38. SimonV, ZennouV, MurrayD, HuangY, HoDD, et al. (2005) Natural variation in Vif: differential impact on APOBEC3G/3F and a potential role in HIV-1 diversification. PLoS Pathog 1: e6.
39. MiyagiE, BrownCR, OpiS, KhanM, Goila-GaurR, et al. (2010) Stably expressed APOBEC3F has negligible antiviral activity. Journal of virology 84: 11067–11075.
40. MulderLC, OomsM, MajdakS, SmedresmanJ, LinscheidC, et al. (2010) Moderate influence of human APOBEC3F on HIV-1 replication in primary lymphocytes. Journal of virology 84: 9613–9617.
41. HacheG, AbbinkTE, BerkhoutB, HarrisRS (2009) Optimal translation initiation enables Vif-deficient human immunodeficiency virus type 1 to escape restriction by APOBEC3G. J Virol 83: 5956–5960.
42. HacheG, ShindoK, AlbinJS, HarrisRS (2008) Evolution of HIV-1 isolates that use a novel Vif-independent mechanism to resist restriction by human APOBEC3G. Curr Biol 18: 819–824.
43. SatoK, MisawaN, FukuharaM, IwamiS, AnDS, et al. (2012) Vpu augments the initial burst phase of HIV-1 propagation and downregulates BST2 and CD4 in humanized mice. Journal of virology 86: 5000–5013.
44. ZouW, DentonPW, WatkinsRL, KriskoJF, NochiT, et al. (2012) Nef functions in BLT mice to enhance HIV-1 replication and deplete CD4+CD8+ thymocytes. Retrovirology 9: 44.
45. KoningFA, NewmanEN, KimEY, KunstmanKJ, WolinskySM, et al. (2009) Defining APOBEC3 expression patterns in human tissues and hematopoietic cell subsets. J Virol 83: 9474–9485.
46. RefslandEW, StengleinMD, ShindoK, AlbinJS, BrownWL, et al. (2010) Quantitative profiling of the full APOBEC3 mRNA repertoire in lymphocytes and tissues: implications for HIV-1 restriction. Nucleic acids research 38: 4274–4284.
47. VetterML, JohnsonME, AntonsAK, UnutmazD, D'AquilaRT (2009) Differences in APOBEC3G expression in CD4+ T helper lymphocyte subtypes modulate HIV-1 infectivity. PLoS Pathog 5: e1000292.
48. RussellRA, WiegandHL, MooreMD, SchaferA, McClureMO, et al. (2005) Foamy virus Bet proteins function as novel inhibitors of the APOBEC3 family of innate antiretroviral defense factors. Journal of virology 79: 8724–8731.
49. JohnsonVA, CalvezV, GunthardHF, ParedesR, PillayD, et al. (2011) 2011 update of the drug resistance mutations in HIV-1. Topics in antiviral medicine 19: 156–164.
50. AldrovandiGM, ZackJA (1996) Replication and pathogenicity of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 accessory gene mutants in SCID-hu mice. Journal of virology 70: 1505–1511.
51. CenS, PengZG, LiXY, LiZR, MaJ, et al. (2010) Small molecular compounds inhibit HIV-1 replication through specifically stabilizing APOBEC3G. The Journal of biological chemistry 285: 16546–16552.
52. NathansR, CaoH, SharovaN, AliA, SharkeyM, et al. (2008) Small-molecule inhibition of HIV-1 Vif. Nat Biotechnol 26: 1187–1192.
53. ZuoT, LiuD, LvW, WangX, WangJ, et al. (2012) Small-Molecule Inhibition of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Replication by Targeting of the Interaction between Vif and ElonginC. Journal of virology 86: 5497–507.
54. DouekDC, KoupRA, McFarlandRD, SullivanJL, LuzuriagaK (2000) Effect of HIV on thymic function before and after antiretroviral therapy in children. The Journal of infectious diseases 181: 1479–1482.
55. DouekDC, McFarlandRD, KeiserPH, GageEA, MasseyJM, et al. (1998) Changes in thymic function with age and during the treatment of HIV infection. Nature 396: 690–695.
56. YeP, KirschnerDE, KourtisAP (2004) The thymus during HIV disease: role in pathogenesis and in immune recovery. Current HIV research 2: 177–183.
57. KoyanagiY, MilesS, MitsuyasuRT, MerrillJE, VintersHV, et al. (1987) Dual infection of the central nervous system by AIDS viruses with distinct cellular tropisms. Science 236: 819–822.
58. PedenK, EmermanM, MontagnierL (1991) Changes in growth properties on passage in tissue culture of viruses derived from infectious molecular clones of HIV-1LAI, HIV-1MAL, and HIV-1ELI. Virology 185: 661–672.
59. KarczewskiMK, StrebelK (1996) Cytoskeleton association and virion incorporation of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vif protein. Journal of virology 70: 494–507.
60. WeiBL, DentonPW, O'NeillE, LuoT, FosterJL, et al. (2005) Inhibition of lysosome and proteasome function enhances human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection. Journal of virology 79: 5705–5712.
61. DengH, LiuR, EllmeierW, ChoeS, UnutmazD, et al. (1996) Identification of a major co-receptor for primary isolates of HIV-1. Nature 381: 661–666.
62. MorgensternJP, LandH (1990) Advanced mammalian gene transfer: high titre retroviral vectors with multiple drug selection markers and a complementary helper-free packaging cell line. Nucleic Acids Res 18: 3587–3596.
63. StopakK, de NoronhaC, YonemotoW, GreeneWC (2003) HIV-1 Vif blocks the antiviral activity of APOBEC3G by impairing both its translation and intracellular stability. Mol Cell 12: 591–601.