1. Fenner F, Henderson DA, Arita I, Jezek Z, Ladnyi ID (1988) Smallpox and its eradication. Geneva: World Health Organization. 1460 p.
2. Shchelkunov SN, Marennikova SS, Moyer RW (2005) Orthopoxviruses pathogenic for humans. New York: Springer. 425 p.
3. ShchelkunovSN, ResenchukSM, TotmeninAV, BlinovVM, MarennikovaSS, et al. (1993) Comparison of the genetic maps of variola and vaccinia viruses. FEBS Lett 327: 321–324.
4. ShchelkunovSN, SafronovPF, TotmeninAV, PetrovNA, RyazankinaOI, et al. (1998) The genomic sequence analysis of the left and fight species-specific terminal region of a cowpox virus strain reveals unique sequences and a cluster of intact ORFs for immunomodulatory and host range proteins. Virology 243: 432–460.
5. ShchelkunovSN, TotmeninAV, LoparevVN, SafronovPF, GutorovVV, et al. (2000) Alastrim smallpox variola minor virus genome DNA sequences. Virology 266: 361–386.
6. ShchelkunovSN, TotmeninAV, BabkinIV, SafronovPF, RyazankinaOI, et al. (2001) Human monkeypox and smallpox viruses: genomic comparison. FEBS Lett 509: 66–70.
7. ShchelkunovSN, TotmeninAV, SafronovPF, MikheevMV, GutorovVV, et al. (2002) Analysis of the monkeypox virus genome. Virology 297: 172–194.
8. GubserC, SmithGL (2002) The sequence of camelpox virus shows it is most closely related to variola virus, the cause of smallpox. J Gen Virol 83: 855–872.
9. HendricksonRC, WangC, HatcherEL, LefkowitzEJ (2010) Orthopoxvirus genome evolution: the role of gene loss. Viruses 2: 1933–1967.
10. MeyerH, TotmeninA, GavrilovaE, ShchelkunovS (2005) Variola and camelpox virus-specific sequences are part of a single large open reading frame identified in two German cowpox virus strains. Virus Res 108: 39–43.
11. GubserC, HueS, KellamP, SmithGL (2004) Poxvirus genomes: a phylogenetic analysis. J Gen Virol 85: 105–117.
12. ShchelkunovSN (2012) Orthopoxvirus genes that mediate disease virulence and host tropism. Adv Virol 2012: 524743.
13. ShchelkunovSN (2009) How long ago did smallpox virus emerge? Arch Virol 154: 1865–1871.
14. ShchelkunovSN, TotmeninAV (1995) Two types of deletions in orthopoxvirus genomes. Virus Genes 9: 231–245.
15. CoulsonD, UptonC (2011) Characterization of indels in poxvirus genomes. Virus Genes 42: 171–177.
16. EldeNC, ChildSJ, EickbushMT, KitzmanJO, RogersKS, et al. (2012) Poxviruses deploy genomic accordions to adapt rapidly against host antiviral defenses. Cell 150: 831–841.
17. ShchelkunovSN (2011) Emergence and reemergence of smallpox: the need in development of a new generation smallpox vaccine. Vaccine 29S: D49–53.
18. DownieAW (1939) The immunological relationship of the virus of spontaneous cowpox to vaccinia virus. Br J Exp Pathol 20: 158–176.
19. DownieAW, DumbellKR (1956) Pox viruses. Annu Rev Microbiol 10: 237–252.
20. BaxbyD (1977) The origins of vaccinia virus. J Infect Dis 136: 453–455.
21. TulmanER, DelhonG, AfonsoCL, LuZ, ZsakL, et al. (2006) Genome of horsepox virus. J Virol 80: 9244–9258.
22. TrindadeGS, EmersonGL, CarrollDS, KroonEG, DamonIK (2007) Brazilian vaccinia viruses and their origins. Emerg Infect Dis 13: 965–972.
23. da FonsecaFG, TrindadeGS, SilvaRL, BonjardimCA, FerreiraPC, et al. (2002) Characterization of a vaccinia-like virus isolated in a Brazilian forest. J Gen Virol 83: 223–228.
24. DamasoCR, EspositoJJ, ConditRC, MoussatcheN (2000) An emergent poxvirus from humans and cattle in Rio de Janeiro State: Cantagalo virus may derive from Brazilian smallpox vaccine. Virology 277: 439–449.
25. LeiteJA, DrumondBP, TrindadeGS, LobatoZI, da FonsecaFG, et al. (2005) Passatempo virus, a vaccinia virus strain, Brazil. Emerg Infect Dis 11: 1935–1938.
26. TrindadeGS, LobatoZI, DrumondBP, LeiteJA, TrigueiroRC, et al. (2006) Isolation of two vaccinia virus strains from a single bovine vaccinia outbreak in rural area from Brazil: implications on the emergence of zoonotic orthopoxviruses. Am J Trop Med Hyg 75: 486–490.
27. MegidJ, BorgesIA, AbrahãoJS, TrindadeGS, AppolinarioCM, et al. (2012) Vaccinia virus zoonotic infection, Sao Paulo State, Brazil. Emerg Infect Dis 18: 189–191.
28. CamposRK, BrumMC, NogueiraCE, DrumondBP, AlvesPA, et al. (2011) Assessing the variability of Brazilian Vaccinia virus isolates from a horse exanthematic lesion: coinfection with distinct viruses. Arch Virol 156: 275–283.
29. CargneluttiJF, SchmidtC, MasudaEK, NogueiraPR, WeiblenR, et al. (2012) Vaccinia viruses isolated from skin infection in horses produced cutaneous and systemic disease in experimentally infected rabbits. Res Vet Sci 93: 1070–1075.
30. AbrahãoJS, GuedesMIM, TrindadeGS, FonsecaFG, CamposRK, et al. (2009) One more piece in the VACV ecological puzzle: could peridomestic rodents be the link between wildlife and bovine vaccinia outbreaks in Brazil? PLoS ONE 4: e7428 doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0007428.
31. D'AnunciaçãoL, GuedesMIM, OliveiraTL, RehfeldI, BonjardimCA, et al. (2012) Filling one more gap: experimental evidence of horizontal transmission of Vaccinia virus between bovines and rodents. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 12: 61–64.
32. DrumondBP, LeiteJA, da FonsecaFG, BonjardimCA, FerreiraPC, et al. (2008) Brazilian Vaccinia virus strains are genetically divergent and differ from the Lister vaccine strain. Microbes Infect 10: 185–197.
33. LalSM, SinghIP (1977) Buffalopox - a review. Trop Anim Health Prod 9: 107–112.
34. SinghRK, HosamaniM, BalamuruganV, SatheeshCC, RasoolTJ, et al. (2006) Comparative sequence analysis of envelope protein genes of Indian buffalopox virus isolates. Arch Virol 151: 1995–2005.
35. BhanuprakashV, VenkatesanG, BalamuruganV, HosamaniM, YogisharadhyaR, et al. (2010) Zoonotic infections of buffalopox in India. Zoonoses Public Health 57: e149–155.
36. VenkatesanG, BalamuruganV, PrabhuM, YogisharadhyaR, BoraDP, et al. (2010) Emerging and re-emerging zoonotic buffalopox infection: a severe outbreak in Kolhapur (Maharashtra), India. Vet Ital 46: 439–448.
37. YadavS, HosamaniM, BalamuruganV, BhanuprakashV, SinghRK (2010) Partial genetic characterization of viruses isolated from pox-like infection in cattle and buffaloes: evidence of buffalo pox virus circulation in Indian cows. Arch Virol 155: 255–261.
38. BeraBCh, ShanmugasundaramK, BaruaS, AnandT, RiyeshT, et al. (2012) Sequence and phylogenetic analysis of host-range (E3L, K3L, and C7L) and structural protein (B5R) genes of buffalopox virus isolates from buffalo, cattle, and human in India. Virus Genes 45: 488–498.
39. BaxbyD (1977) Poxvirus hosts and reservoirs. Arch Virol 55: 169–179.
40. EssbauerS, PfefferM, MeyerH (2010) Zoonotic poxviruses. Vet Microbiol 140: 229–236.
41. KinnunenPM, HenttonenH, HoffmannB, KallioER, KorthaseC, et al. (2011) Orthopox virus infections in Eurasian rodents. Vector Borne Zoonot Dis 11: 1133–1140.
42. TrylandM, OkekeMI, SegerstadCH, MornerT, TraavikT, et al. (2011) Orthopoxvirus DNA in Eurasian lynx, Sweden. Emerg Infect Dis 17: 626–632.
43. CampeH, ZimmermannP, GlosK, BayerM, BergemannH, et al. (2009) Cowpox virus transmission from pet rats to humans, Germany. Emerg Infect Dis 15: 777–780.
44. NinoveL, DomartY, VervelC, VoinotC, SalezN, et al. (2009) Cowpox virus transmission from pet rats to humans, France. Emerg Infect Dis 15: 781–784.
45. KurthA, StraubeM, KuczkaA, DunscheAJ, MeyerH, et al. (2009) Cowpox virus outbreak in banded mongooses (Mungos mungo) and jaguarundis (Herpailurus yagouaroundi) with a time-delayed infection to humans. PLoS ONE 4: e6883 doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0006883.
46. CardetiG, BrozziA, EleniC, PoliciN, D'AlterioG, et al. (2011) Cowpox virus in llama, Italy. Emerg Infect Dis 17: 1513–1515.
47. FavierAL, FlusinO, LepreuxS, FleuryH, LabrezeC, et al. (2011) Necrotic ulcerated lesion in a young boy caused by cowpox virus infection. Case Rep Dermatol 3: 186–194.
48. PilaskiJ, RosenA, DaraiG (1986) Comparative analysis of the genomes of orthopoxviruses isolated from elephant, rhinoceros, and okapi by restriction enzymes. Arch Virol 88: 135–142.
49. KaysserP, von BomhardW, DobrzykowskiL, MeyerH (2010) Genetic diversity of feline cowpox virus, Germany 2000–2008. Vet Microbiol 141: 282–288.
50. CarrollDS, EmersonGL, LiY, SammonsS, OlsonV, et al. (2011) Chasing Jenner's vaccine: revisiting Cowpox virus classification. PLoS ONE 6: e23086 doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0023086.
51. JezekZ, FennerF (1988) Human monkeypox. Monog Virol 17: 1–140.
52. RimoinAW, MulembakaniPM, JonstonSC, Lloyd SmithJO, KisaluNK, et al. (2010) Major increase in human monkeypox incidence 30 years after smallpox vaccination campaigns cease in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107: 16262–16267.
53. Di GiulioDB, EckburgPB (2004) Human monkeypox: an emerging zoonosis. Lancet Infect Dis 4: 15–25.
54. Al-Zi'AbiO, HishikawaH, MeyerH (2007) The first outbreak of camelpox in Syria. J Vet Med Sci 69: 541–543.
55. DuraffourS, MeyerH, AndreiG, SnoeckR (2011) Camelpox virus. Antiviral Res 92: 167–186.
56. BeraBC, ShanmugasundaramK, BaruaS, VenkatesanG, VirmaniN, et al. (2011) Zoonotic cases of camelpox infection in India. Vet Microbiol 152: 29–38.
57. DomingoE (2010) Mechanisms of viral emergence. Vet Res 41: 38.
58. ParrishCR, HolmesEC, MorensDM, ParkEC, BurkeDS, et al. (2008) Cross-species virus transmission and the emergence of new epidemic diseases. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 72: 457–470.
59. WolfeND, DunavanCP, DiamondJ (2007) Origins of major human infectious diseases. Nature 447: 279–283.
60. Alcami A, Damon I, Evans D, Huggins JW, Hughes C, et al. (2010) Scientific review of variola virus research, 1999–2010. Geneva: World Health Organization. WHO/HSE/GAR/BDP/2010.3.
61. GreenbergRN, OvertonET, HaasDW, FrankI, GoldmanM, et al. (2013) Safety, immunogenicity, and surrogate markers of clinical efficacy for modified vaccinia Ankara as a smallpox vaccine in HIV-infected subjects. J Infect Dis 207: 749–758.
62. WHO Advisory Committee on Variola Virus Research (2011) Report of the thirteenth meeting, Geneva, Switzerland, 31 October–1 November 2011. Geneva: World Health Organization. WHO/HSE/GAR/BDP/2011.2.
63. WHO Advisory Committee on Variola Virus Research (May 2013) Report of the fourteenth meeting, Geneva, Switzerland, 16–17 October 2012. Geneva: World Health Organization. WHO/HSE/PED/CED/2013.1.