Následná laserová iridoplastika a laserová goniopunkturace po nepenetrující trabekulektomii


Autoři: Lawrence F. Jindra M. D. 1,2
Působiště autorů: Edward S. Harkness Institute of Ophthalmology, Columbia University New York, New York, USA 1;  Chief Emeritus, Division of Ophthalmology, Winthrop University Hospital Mineola, New York, USA 2
Vyšlo v časopise: Čes. a slov. Oftal., 69, 2013, No. 1, p. 3-7
Kategorie: Původní práce

Do redakce doručeno dne 7. 1. 2013
Do tisku přijato dne 25. 2. 2013

Souhrn

Introduction:
Successful non-perforating trabeculectomy (NPT) results in filtration of aqueous humor out of the anterior chamber and into a filtration bleb, without surgical excision of tissue from the anterior chamber angle, and without penetration into the anterior chamber. The complications of perforating trabeculectomy, due to early postoperative hypotony (shallow anterior chamber, hyphema, macular folds, suprachoroidal effusion, and ciliochoroidal hemorrhage) (3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9) are regarded by many surgeons as significant risks. Nonperforating surgery has been reported to reduce the incidence of early hypotony-related complications (10), because it has the advantage of creating gradual filtration of aqueous humor, through a thin trabeculodescemetic membrane (TDM), which markedly reduces postoperative complications seen after a conventional trabeculectomy (11), and also has been reported to provide better long-term intraocular pressure (IOP) control (12, 13).

NPT is reported to be a procedure with a significant learning curve, sometimes necessitating conversion to perforating trabeculectomy, and requiring careful postoperative monitoring (14, 15, 16, 17). Zimmerman et al. reported filtration of aqueous humor under a filtering bleb, by resecting the roof of Schlemm’s canal and removing corneal stroma overlying the trabecular meshwork (18) Mermoud et al. reported filtration of aqueous humor under a filtering, bleb by unroofing Schlemm’s canal and removing corneal stroma overlying the trabecular meshwork as well Descemet’s membrane (19); he found that resistance across the TDM sometimes increased with time. When this resistance to aqueous humor outflow occurred, Mermoud found TDM resistance could be eliminated by performance of goniopuncture (ab interno Nd:YAG laser membranotomy via gonioprism), to enhance aqueous humor outflow into the filtration bleb.

Failure to filter adequately through the TDM is a potential complication following NPT which can result in a rise in intraocular pressure (IOP). In this paper we examine the effectiveness of adjunctive Nd:YAG laser goniopuncture (YGP) in patients who underwent NPT, to reduce post-operative IOP rise, secondary to scarring at or poor aqueous outflow through the TDM. Iris prolapse (IP) is another potential complication following NPT which can result in a rise in IOP. In this paper we examine the effectiveness of adjunctive argon laser peripheral iridoplasty (ALPI) in patients who underwent NPT, to reduce post-operative IOP rise, secondary to IP obstructing outflow across the TDM.

Background:
Nd:YAG laser goniopuncture consists of placing several laser shots on the undersurface of the trabeculodescemetic membrane. The result is a microperforation in this membrane, with flow of aqueous into the filtration bleb, which converts a non-perforating filtration procedure into a partial thickness filtration procedure. In this technique, several high power, multi-burst shots are applied, ab interno, by a Nd:YAG laser via a gonioprism, to the underside of the TDM, to facilitate aqueous outflow out from the anterior chamber. YGP can be effective when increased aqueous outflow is desired postoperatively. After this procedure, patent perforation in the TDM is usually observed gonioscopically, generally accompanied with reduction in IOP, and increase in bleb elevation (in height and in circumferential extent).

Argon laser peripheral iridoplasty consists of placing several laser burns on the surface of the peripheral iris to contract the iris stroma, in a centripetal fashion, between the site of the burn and the anterior chamber angle. The result is iris stromal tissue contraction and compaction, movement of IP away from the angle and toward the pupil, which physically widens the angle and clears the synechial apposition of the peripheral iris against the TDM. In this technique, a series of low power, long duration, and large size burns is applied to the iris periphery to contract the iris stroma, to open the angle, and to clear IP causing synechial obstruction of the TDM after successful NPT. Used previously in acute angle closure glaucoma, ALPI may be effective in controlling IOP and clearing corneal edema when systemic and topical anti-glaucoma treatments fail to control high IOP, and when laser peripheral iridotomy (LPI) is not possible (e.g. in cases of severe corneal edema). Additionally, ALPI can be effective in permanently reopening the anterior chamber angle of iridectomized eyes with plateau iris syndrome; in this technique a full 360 degrees ring of spots is often applied, but a more limited area of treatment may also be effective.

Technique:
When a post-operative elevation in IOP was detected in a patient’s eye which had undergone NPT, careful indentation gonioscopy was performed to examine the TDM at the surgical site. If the peripheral iris was flat, the anterior chamber angle was open, and the TDM did not appear obstructed by IP, YGP was performed. First, the eyes were pre-treated with aproclonodine 1% and pilocarpine 2% (if needed to allow visualization of the TDM). Next, a Nd:YAG laser was set on triple burst mode and shots were applied to the underside of the TDM at the NPT site, using a Goldman 3-mirror lens in the following manner: Energy – 3–5 mJ; Mode – Triple burst. The power and amount of spots were titrated in order to achieve partial or microperforation of TDM at the NPT surgical site, thus resulting in restoration of aqueous outflow into the filtration bleb.

When a post-operative elevation in IOP was detected in a patient’s eye which had undergone NPT and or YGP, careful indentation gonioscopy was performed to examine the TDM at the surgical site. If irreducible synechial IP were detected, which obstructed filtration through the TDM at the NPT surgical site, ALPI was performed. First, the eyes were pre-treated with aproclonodine 1% and pilocarpine 2%. Next, an argon laser was set on blue-green mode and shots were applied to the IP adherent to cornea or to the TDM at the NPT site, using a Goldman 3-mirror lens in the following manner: Spot Size – 500 mM; Duration – 0.5 s; Power – 200 to 400 mW. The power and amount of burns were titrated in order to achieve partial or complete centripetal retraction of the IP from the TDM at the NPT surgical site, causing a clearance of the obstruction to the TDM, thus resulting in restoration of aqueous outflow into the filtration bleb.


Zdroje

1. Lachkar Y, Hamard P. Nonpenetrating filtering surgery. Current Opinion in Ophthalmology 2002; 13: 110–115.

2. Sayyad F, Helal M, El-Kholify H, et al. Nonpenetrating deep sclerectomy versus trabeculectomy in bilateral primary open angle glaucoma. Ophthalmology 2000, 107: 1671–1674.

3. Watson PG, Jakeman C, Ozturk M , et al. The complications of trabeculectomy (a 20-year follow-up). Eye 1990; 4: 425–438.

4. Kao SF, Lichter PR, Musch DC. Anterior chamber depth following filtration surgery. Ophthalmic Surg 1989; 20: 332–336.

5. Stewart WC, Shields MB. Management of anterior chamber depth after trabeculectomy. Am J Ophthalmol 1988; 106: 41–44.

6. Brubaker RF, Pederson JE. Ciliochoroidal detachment. Surv Ophthalmol 1983; 104: 201–205.

7. Gressel MG, Parrish RK II, Heuer DK. Delayed Nonexpulsive suprachoroidal hemorrhage following filtration procedures. Arch Ophthalmol 1984; 102: 1757–1760.

8. Ruderman JM, Harbin TS Jr, Cambell DG. Postoperative suprachoroidal hemorrhage following filtration procedures. Arch Ophthl 1986; 104: 201–205.

9. Freedman J, Gupta M, Bumke A. Endophthalmitis after trabeculectomy. Arch Ophthal 1978; 96: 1017–1018

10. Zimmerman TJ, Kooner KS, Ford VJ, et al. Trabeculectomy vs. non-penetrating trabeculectomy: a retrospective study of two procedures in phakic patients with glaucoma. Ophthalmic Surgery 1984; 15: 734–740.

11. Chiselita D. Non-penetrating deep sclerectomy versus trabeculectomy in primary open-angle glaucoma surgery. Eye 2001; 15: 197–201.

12. Tan JCH, Hithchings RA. Non-penetrating glaucoma surgery: the state of play. Br J Ophthalmol 2001; 85:234-237.

13. Karlen ME, Sanchez E, Schnyder CC, et al. Deep sclerectomy with collagen implant: medium term results. Br J Ophthalmol 1999; 83: 6–11.

14. Mermoud A, Schnyder CC, Sickenberg M, et al. Comparison of deep sclerectomy with collagen implant and trabeculectomy in open-angle glaucoma. Journal of Cataract and Refractive Surgery 1999, 25:323-331.

15. Mermoud A. Sinusotomy and deep sclerectomy. Eye 2000; 14: 531–535.

16. Bas JM, Goethals MJH. Nonpenetrating deep sclerectomy: preliminary results. Bull Soc Belge Ophthalmol 1999; 272: 55–59.

17. Demailly P, Lavat P, Kretz, G, et al. Non-penetrating deep sclerectomy (NPDS) with or without collagen device (CD) in primary open-angle glaucoma: middle term retrospective study. International Ophthalmology 1997; 20: 131–140.

18. Zimmerman TJ, Kooner KS, Ford VJ, et al. Effectiveness of non-penetrating trabeculectomy in aphakic patients with glaucoma. Ophthalmic Surgery 1984; 15: 44–50.

19. Chiou AGY, Mermoud A, Underdahl JP, Schnyder CC. An ultrasound biomicroscopic study of eyes after deep sclerectomy with collagen implant. Ophthalmology 1998; 105: 746–50.

20. Mermoud A, Karlen ME, Schnyder CC, et al. Nd:YAG goniopuncture after deep sclerectomy with collagen implant. Ophthalmic Surg Lasers 1999; 30: 120–25.

21. Lachkar Y, Hamard P. Nonpenetrating filtering surgery. Current Opinion in Ophthalmology 2002; 13: 110–115.

22. Sayyad F, Helal M, El-Kholify H, et al. Nonpenetrating deep sclerectomy versus trabeculectomy in bilateral primary open angle glaucoma. Ophthalmology 2000, 107: 1671–1674.

23. Watson PG, Jakeman C, Ozturk M , et al. The complications of trabeculectomy (a 20-year follow-up). Eye 1990; 4: 425–438.

24. Kao SF, Lichter PR, Musch DC. Anterior chamber depth following filtration surgery. Ophthalmic Surg 1989; 20: 332–336.

25. Stewart WC, Shields MB. Management of anterior chamber depth after trabeculectomy. Am J Ophthalmol 1988; 106: 41–44.

26. Brubaker RF, Pederson JE. Ciliochoroidal detachment. Surv Ophthalmol 1983; 104: 201–205.

27. Gressel MG, Parrish RK II, Heuer DK. Delayed Nonexpulsive suprachoroidal hemorrhage following filtration procedures. Arch Ophthalmol 1984; 102: 1757–1760.

28. Ruderman JM, Harbin TS Jr, Cambell DG. Postoperative suprachoroidal hemorrhage following filtration procedures. Arch Ophthl 1986; 104: 201–205.

29. Freedman J, Gupta M, Bumke A. Endophthalmitis after trabeculectomy. Arch Ophthal 1978; 96: 1017–1018.

30. Zimmerman TJ, Kooner KS, Ford VJ, et al. Trabeculectomy vs. non-penetrating trabeculectomy: a retrospective study of two procedures in phakic patients with glaucoma. Ophthalmic Surgery 1984; 15: 734–740.

31. Chiselita D. Non-penetrating deep sclerectomy versus trabeculectomy in primary open-angle glaucoma surgery. Eye 2001; 15: 197–201.

32. Tan JCH, Hithchings RA. Non-penetrating glaucoma surgery: the state of play. Br J Ophthalmol 2001; 85:234-237.

33. Karlen ME, Sanchez E, Schnyder CC, et al. Deep sclerectomy with collagen implant: medium term results. Br J Ophthalmol 1999; 83: 6–11.

34. Mermoud A, Schnyder CC, Sickenberg M, et al. Comparison of deep sclerectomy with collagen implant and trabeculectomy in open-angle glaucoma. Journal of Cataract and Refractive Surgery 1999, 25:323-331.

35. Mermoud A. Sinusotomy and deep sclerectomy. Eye 2000; 14: 531–535.

36. Bas JM, Goethals MJH. Nonpenetrating deep sclerectomy: preliminary results. Bull Soc Belge Ophthalmol 1999; 272: 55–59.

37. Demailly P, Lavat P, Kretz, G, et al. Non-penetrating deep sclerectomy (NPDS) with or without collagen device (CD) in primary open-angle glaucoma: middle term retrospective study. International Ophthalmology 1997; 20: 131–140.

38. Zimmerman TJ, Kooner KS, Ford VJ, et al. Effectiveness of non-penetrating trabeculectomy in aphakic patients with glaucoma. Ophthalmic Surgery 1984; 15: 44–50.

39. Chiou AGY, Mermoud A, Underdahl JP, Schnyder CC. An ultrasound biomicroscopic study of eyes after deep sclerectomy with collagen implant. Ophthalmology 1998; 105: 746–50.

40. Mermoud A, Karlen ME, Schnyder CC, et al. Nd:YAG goniopuncture after deep sclerectomy with collagen implant. Ophthalmic Surg Lasers 1999; 30: 120–25.

41. Takhchidi KhP, Strenyov NV, Ivanov, DI. Modern technologies of primary glaucoma surgery. Third International Glaucoma Symposium. March 21–25, 2001. Prague, Czech Republic.

42. Sanchez E, Schnyder CC, Sickenberg M, et al. Deep sclerectomy: results with and without collagen implant. International Ophthalmology 1997; 20: 157–162.

43. Jonescu-Cuypers CP, Jacobi PC, Konen W, et al. Primary viscocanalostomy versus trabeculectomy in white patients with open-angle glaucoma. Ophthalmology 2001; 108: 254–258.

44. Netland PA; Ophthalmic Technology Assessment Committee Glaucoma Panel, American Academy of Ophthalmology (2001) Nonpenetrating glaucoma surgery. Ophthalmology 2001; 108: 416 –421.

45. Dietlein TS, Luke C, Jacobi PC, et al. Variability of dissection depth in deep sclerectomy: morphological analysis of the deep scleral flap. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2000; 238: 405–409.

Štítky
Oftalmologie

Článek vyšel v časopise

Česká a slovenská oftalmologie

Číslo 1

2013 Číslo 1

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