1. LanghorneJ, NdunguFM, SponaasAM, MarshK (2008) Immunity to malaria: more questions than answers. Nat Immunol 9: 725–732.
2. MarshK, KinyanjuiS (2006) Immune effector mechanisms in malaria. Parasite Immunol 28: 51–60.
3. TranTM, LiS, DoumboS, DoumtabeD, HuangCY, et al. (2013) An intensive longitudinal cohort study of Malian children and adults reveals no evidence of acquired immunity to Plasmodium falciparum infection. Clin Infect Dis 57: 40–47.
4. DeloronP, ChougnetC (1992) Is immunity to malaria really short-lived? Parasitol Today 8: 375–378.
5. Di PerriG, SolbiatiM, VentoS, De ChecchiG, LuzzatiR, et al. (1994) West African Immigrants and New Patterns of Malaria Imported to North Eastern Italy. Journal of Travel Medicine 1: 147–151.
6. BarryAE, SchultzL, BuckeeCO, ReederJC (2009) Contrasting population structures of the genes encoding ten leading vaccine-candidate antigens of the human malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum. PLoS ONE 4: e8497.
7. AdkinsB (1999) T-cell function in newborn mice and humans. Immunol Today 20: 330–335.
8. PassRF, StagnoS, BrittWJ, AlfordCA (1983) Specific cell-mediated immunity and the natural history of congenital infection with cytomegalovirus. J Infect Dis 148: 953–961.
9. AdkinsB, LeclercC, Marshall-ClarkeS (2004) Neonatal adaptive immunity comes of age. Nat Rev Immunol 4: 553–564.
10. HoltPG (2003) Functionally mature virus-specific CD8(+) T memory cells in congenitally infected newborns: proof of principle for neonatal vaccination? J Clin Invest 111: 1645–1647.
11. WilsonCB, LewisDB (1990) Basis and implications of selectively diminished cytokine production in neonatal susceptibility to infection. Rev Infect Dis 12 (Suppl 4) S410–420.
12. WilsonCB, LewisDB, EnglishBK (1991) T cell development in the fetus and neonate. Adv Exp Med Biol 310: 17–27.
13. HoM, WebsterHK, LooareesuwanS, SupanaranondW, PhillipsRE, et al. (1986) Antigen-specific immunosuppression in human malaria due to Plasmodium falciparum. J Infect Dis 153: 763–771.
14. PlebanskiM, FlanaganKL, LeeEA, ReeceWH, HartK, et al. (1999) Interleukin 10-mediated immunosuppression by a variant CD4 T cell epitope of Plasmodium falciparum. Immunity 10: 651–660.
15. WaltherM, TongrenJE, AndrewsL, KorbelD, KingE, et al. (2005) Upregulation of TGF-beta, FOXP3, and CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells correlates with more rapid parasite growth in human malaria infection. Immunity 23: 287–296.
16. BejonP, MwacharoJ, KaiO, TodrykS, KeatingS, et al. (2007) The induction and persistence of T cell IFN-gamma responses after vaccination or natural exposure is suppressed by Plasmodium falciparum. J Immunol 179: 4193–4201.
17. ButlerNS, MoebiusJ, PeweLL, TraoreB, DoumboOK, et al. (2012) Therapeutic blockade of PD-L1 and LAG-3 rapidly clears established blood-stage Plasmodium infection. Nat Immunol 13: 188–195.
18. Freitas do RosarioAP, LambT, SpenceP, StephensR, LangA, et al. (2012) IL-27 promotes IL-10 production by effector Th1 CD4+ T cells: a critical mechanism for protection from severe immunopathology during malaria infection. J Immunol 188: 1178–1190.
19. Freitas do RosarioAP, LanghorneJ (2012) T cell-derived IL-10 and its impact on the regulation of host responses during malaria. Int J Parasitol 42: 549–555.
20. JagannathanP, MuhindoMK, KakuruA, ArinaitweE, GreenhouseB, et al. (2012) Increasing incidence of malaria in children despite insecticide-treated bed nets and prompt anti-malarial therapy in Tororo, Uganda. Malar J 11: 435.
21. Roca-FeltrerA, KwizombeCJ, SanjoaquinMA, SesaySS, FaragherB, et al. (2012) Lack of decline in childhood malaria, Malawi, 2001–2010. Emerging infectious diseases 18: 272–278.
22. TrapeJF, TallA, DiagneN, NdiathO, LyAB, et al. (2011) Malaria morbidity and pyrethroid resistance after the introduction of insecticide-treated bednets and artemisinin-based combination therapies: a longitudinal study. Lancet Infectious Diseases 11: 925–932.
23. SchofieldL, VillaquiranJ, FerreiraA, SchellekensH, NussenzweigR, et al. (1987) Gamma interferon, CD8+ T cells and antibodies required for immunity to malaria sporozoites. Nature 330: 664–666.
24. RomeroP, MaryanskiJL, CorradinG, NussenzweigRS, NussenzweigV, et al. (1989) Cloned cytotoxic T cells recognize an epitope in the circumsporozoite protein and protect against malaria. Nature 341: 323–326.
25. RodriguesM, NussenzweigRS, ZavalaF (1993) The relative contribution of antibodies, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells to sporozoite-induced protection against malaria. Immunology 80: 1–5.
26. TsujiM, BergmannCC, Takita-SonodaY, MurataK, RodriguesEG, et al. (1998) Recombinant Sindbis viruses expressing a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte epitope of a malaria parasite or of influenza virus elicit protection against the corresponding pathogen in mice. J Virol 72: 6907–6910.
27. StephensR, AlbanoFR, QuinS, PascalBJ, HarrisonV, et al. (2005) Malaria-specific transgenic CD4(+) T cells protect immunodeficient mice from lethal infection and demonstrate requirement for a protective threshold of antibody production for parasite clearance. Blood 106: 1676–1684.
28. SchmidtNW, PodyminoginRL, ButlerNS, BadovinacVP, TuckerBJ, et al. (2008) Memory CD8 T cell responses exceeding a large but definable threshold provide long-term immunity to malaria. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105: 14017–14022.
29. OverstreetMG, CockburnIA, ChenYC, ZavalaF (2008) Protective CD8 T cells against Plasmodium liver stages: immunobiology of an ‘unnatural’ immune response. Immunol Rev 225: 272–283.
30. StephensR, LanghorneJ (2010) Effector memory Th1 CD4 T cells are maintained in a mouse model of chronic malaria. PLoS Pathog 6: e1001208.
31. NussenzweigRS, VanderbergJ, MostH, OrtonC (1967) Protective immunity produced by the injection of x-irradiated sporozoites of plasmodium berghei. Nature 216: 160–162.
32. ClydeDF, MostH, McCarthyVC, VanderbergJP (1973) Immunization of man against sporozite-induced falciparum malaria. Am J Med Sci 266: 169–177.
33. HoffmanSL, DoolanDL (2000) Malaria vaccines-targeting infected hepatocytes. Nat Med 6: 1218–1219.
34. RoestenbergM, McCallM, HopmanJ, WiersmaJ, LutyAJ, et al. (2009) Protection against a malaria challenge by sporozoite inoculation. N Engl J Med 361: 468–477.
35. FriesenJ, SilvieO, PutriantiED, HafallaJC, MatuschewskiK, et al. (2010) Natural immunization against malaria: causal prophylaxis with antibiotics. Sci Transl Med 2: 40ra49.
36. RoestenbergM, TeirlinckAC, McCallMB, TeelenK, MakamdopKN, et al. (2011) Long-term protection against malaria after experimental sporozoite inoculation: an open-label follow-up study. Lancet 377: 1770–1776.
37. ReeceWH, PinderM, GothardPK, MilliganP, BojangK, et al. (2004) A CD4(+) T-cell immune response to a conserved epitope in the circumsporozoite protein correlates with protection from natural Plasmodium falciparum infection and disease. Nat Med 10: 406–410.
38. TodrykSM, BejonP, MwangiT, PlebanskiM, UrbanB, et al. (2008) Correlation of memory T cell responses against TRAP with protection from clinical malaria, and CD4 CD25 high T cells with susceptibility in Kenyans. PLoS ONE 3: e2027.
39. KurtisJD, HollingdaleMR, LutyAJ, LanarDE, KrzychU, et al. (2001) Pre-erythrocytic immunity to Plasmodium falciparum: the case for an LSA-1 vaccine. Trends Parasitol 17: 219–223.
40. HoffmanSL, OsterCN, MasonC, BeierJC, SherwoodJA, et al. (1989) Human lymphocyte proliferative response to a sporozoite T cell epitope correlates with resistance to falciparum malaria. J Immunol 142: 1299–1303.
41. LutyAJ, LellB, Schmidt-OttR, LehmanLG, LucknerD, et al. (1999) Interferon-gamma responses are associated with resistance to reinfection with Plasmodium falciparum in young African children. J Infect Dis 179: 980–988.
42. MoormannAM, SumbaPO, ChelimoK, FangH, TischDJ, et al. (2013) Humoral and Cellular Immunity to Plasmodium falciparum Merozoite Surface Protein 1 and Protection From Infection With Blood-Stage Parasites. J Infect Dis 208: 149–158.
43. D'OmbrainMC, RobinsonLJ, StanisicDI, TaraikaJ, BernardN, et al. (2008) Association of early interferon-gamma production with immunity to clinical malaria: a longitudinal study among Papua New Guinean children. Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America 47: 1380–1387.
44. McCallMB, HopmanJ, DaouM, MaigaB, DaraV, et al. (2010) Early interferon-gamma response against Plasmodium falciparum correlates with interethnic differences in susceptibility to parasitemia between sympatric Fulani and Dogon in Mali. J Infect Dis 201: 142–152.
45. BejonP, WarimweG, MackintoshCL, MackinnonMJ, KinyanjuiSM, et al. (2009) Analysis of immunity to febrile malaria in children that distinguishes immunity from lack of exposure. Infect Immun 77: 1917–1923.
46. GreenhouseB, HoB, HubbardA, Njama-MeyaD, NarumDL, et al. (2011) Antibodies to Plasmodium falciparum antigens predict a higher risk of malaria but protection from symptoms once parasitemic. J Infect Dis 204: 19–26.
47. DouekDC, RoedererM, KoupRA (2009) Emerging concepts in the immunopathogenesis of AIDS. Annual Review of Medicine 60: 471–484.
48. DarrahPA, PatelDT, De LucaPM, LindsayRW, DaveyDF, et al. (2007) Multifunctional TH1 cells define a correlate of vaccine-mediated protection against Leishmania major. Nature medicine 13: 843–850.
49. AndersonCF, OukkaM, KuchrooVJ, SacksD (2007) CD4(+)CD25(−)Foxp3(−) Th1 cells are the source of IL-10-mediated immune suppression in chronic cutaneous leishmaniasis. J Exp Med 204: 285–297.
50. JankovicD, KullbergMC, FengCG, GoldszmidRS, CollazoCM, et al. (2007) Conventional T-bet(+)Foxp3(−) Th1 cells are the major source of host-protective regulatory IL-10 during intracellular protozoan infection. J Exp Med 204: 273–283.
51. OlotuA, MorisP, MwacharoJ, VekemansJ, KimaniD, et al. (2011) Circumsporozoite-Specific T Cell Responses in Children Vaccinated with RTS,S/AS01(E) and Protection against P falciparum Clinical Malaria. PLoS ONE 6: e25786.
52. WaltherM, JeffriesD, FinneyOC, NjieM, EbonyiA, et al. (2009) Distinct roles for FOXP3 and FOXP3 CD4 T cells in regulating cellular immunity to uncomplicated and severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria. PLoS Pathog 5: e1000364.
53. ZhangG, ManacaMN, McNamara-SmithM, MayorA, NhabombaA, et al. (2012) Interleukin-10 (IL-10) polymorphisms are associated with IL-10 production and clinical malaria in young children. Infect Immun 80: 2316–2322.
54. Epstein JE, Tewari K, Lyke KE, Sim BK, Billingsley PF, et al. (2011) Live Attenuated Malaria Vaccine Designed to Protect through Hepatic CD8+ T Cell Immunity. Science.
55. OlotuA, MorisP, MwacharoJ, VekemansJ, KimaniD, et al. (2011) Circumsporozoite-specific T cell responses in children vaccinated with RTS,S/AS01E and protection against P falciparum clinical malaria. PLoS ONE 6: e25786.
56. CopeA, Le FriecG, CardoneJ, KemperC (2011) The Th1 life cycle: molecular control of IFN-gamma to IL-10 switching. Trends in Immunology 32: 278–286.
57. O'GarraA, VieiraP (2007) T(H)1 cells control themselves by producing interleukin-10. Nature reviews Immunology 7: 425–428.
58. WenischC, ParschalkB, NarztE, LooareesuwanS, GraningerW (1995) Elevated serum levels of IL-10 and IFN-gamma in patients with acute Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Clinical Immunology and Immunopathology 74: 115–117.
59. PeyronF, BurdinN, RingwaldP, VuillezJP, RoussetF, et al. (1994) High levels of circulating IL-10 in human malaria. Clinical and experimental immunology 95: 300–303.
60. WilsonNO, BythwoodT, SolomonW, JollyP, YatichN, et al. (2010) Elevated levels of IL-10 and G-CSF associated with asymptomatic malaria in pregnant women. Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology 2010: pii: 317430.
61. Pinzon-CharryA, WoodberryT, KienzleV, McPhunV, MinigoG, et al. (2013) Apoptosis and dysfunction of blood dendritic cells in patients with falciparum and vivax malaria. J Exp Med 210: 1635–1646.
62. O'ConnorRA, JensonJS, OsborneJ, DevaneyE (2003) An enduring association? Microfilariae and immunosuppression [correction of immunosupression] in lymphatic filariasis. Trends Parasitol 19: 565–570.
63. SteelC, GuineaA, McCarthyJS, OttesenEA (1994) Long-term effect of prenatal exposure to maternal microfilaraemia on immune responsiveness to filarial parasite antigens. Lancet 343: 890–893.
64. WammesLJ, HamidF, WiriaAE, WibowoH, SartonoE, et al. (2012) Regulatory T cells in human lymphatic filariasis: stronger functional activity in microfilaremics. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases 6: e1655.
65. MaizelsRM, YazdanbakhshM (2003) Immune regulation by helminth parasites: cellular and molecular mechanisms. Nature reviews Immunology 3: 733–744.
66. McNeilAC, ShupertWL, IyasereCA, HallahanCW, MicanJA, et al. (2001) High-level HIV-1 viremia suppresses viral antigen-specific CD4(+) T cell proliferation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 98: 13878–13883.
67. ThimmeR, OldachD, ChangKM, SteigerC, RaySC, et al. (2001) Determinants of viral clearance and persistence during acute hepatitis C virus infection. J Exp Med 194: 1395–1406.
68. HaringerB, LozzaL, SteckelB, GeginatJ (2009) Identification and characterization of IL-10/IFN-gamma-producing effector-like T cells with regulatory function in human blood. J Exp Med 206: 1009–1017.
69. BoussiotisVA, TsaiEY, YunisEJ, ThimS, DelgadoJC, et al. (2000) IL-10-producing T cells suppress immune responses in anergic tuberculosis patients. J Clin Invest 105: 1317–1325.
70. MeilerF, ZumkehrJ, KlunkerS, RuckertB, AkdisCA, et al. (2008) In vivo switch to IL-10-secreting T regulatory cells in high dose allergen exposure. J Exp Med 205: 2887–2898.
71. O'GarraA, VieiraP (2007) T(H)1 cells control themselves by producing interleukin-10. Nat Rev Immunol 7: 425–428.
72. LiC, CorralizaI, LanghorneJ (1999) A defect in interleukin-10 leads to enhanced malarial disease in Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi infection in mice. Infect Immun 67: 4435–4442.
73. WinklerS, WillheimM, BaierK, SchmidD, AichelburgA, et al. (1998) Reciprocal regulation of Th1- and Th2-cytokine-producing T cells during clearance of parasitemia in Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Infect Immun 66: 6040–6044.
74. FlanaganKL, PlebanskiM, OdhiamboK, SheuE, MwangiT, et al. (2006) Cellular reactivity to the p. Falciparum protein trap in adult kenyans: novel epitopes, complex cytokine patterns, and the impact of natural antigenic variation. Am J Trop Med Hyg 74: 367–375.
75. GitauEN, TujuJ, StevensonL, KimaniE, KaranjaH, et al. (2012) T-cell responses to the DBLalpha-tag, a short semi-conserved region of the Plasmodium falciparum membrane erythrocyte protein 1. PLoS ONE 7: e30095.
76. RoetynckS, OlotuA, SimamJ, MarshK, StockingerB, et al. (2013) Phenotypic and functional profiling of CD4 T cell compartment in distinct populations of healthy adults with different antigenic exposure. PLoS ONE 8: e55195.
77. Freitas do RosarioAP, LanghorneJ (2012) T cell-derived IL-10 and its impact on the regulation of host responses during malaria. International Journal for Parasitology 42: 549–555.
78. MetenouS, DembeleB, KonateS, DoloH, CoulibalyYI, et al. (2011) Filarial infection suppresses malaria-specific multifunctional Th1 and Th17 responses in malaria and filarial coinfections. Journal of immunology 186: 4725–4733.
79. BrustoskiK, MollerU, KramerM, PetelskiA, BrennerS, et al. (2005) IFN-gamma and IL-10 mediate parasite-specific immune responses of cord blood cells induced by pregnancy-associated Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Journal of immunology 174: 1738–1745.
80. BrockmanMA, KwonDS, TigheDP, PavlikDF, RosatoPC, et al. (2009) IL-10 is up-regulated in multiple cell types during viremic HIV infection and reversibly inhibits virus-specific T cells. Blood 114: 346–356.
81. BrooksDG, TrifiloMJ, EdelmannKH, TeytonL, McGavernDB, et al. (2006) Interleukin-10 determines viral clearance or persistence in vivo. Nat Med 12: 1301–1309.
82. DepinayN, FranetichJF, GrunerAC, MauduitM, ChavatteJM, et al. (2011) Inhibitory effect of TNF-alpha on malaria pre-erythrocytic stage development: influence of host hepatocyte/parasite combinations. PLoS ONE 6: e17464.
83. NusslerA, PiedS, GomaJ, ReniaL, MiltgenF, et al. (1991) TNF inhibits malaria hepatic stages in vitro via synthesis of IL-6. International Immunology 3: 317–321.
84. KatrakS, GasasiraA, ArinaitweE, KakuruA, WanziraH, et al. (2009) Safety and tolerability of artemether-lumefantrine versus dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine for malaria in young HIV-infected and uninfected children. Malaria Journal 8: 272.
85. SandisonTG, HomsyJ, ArinaitweE, WanziraH, KakuruA, et al. (2011) Protective efficacy of co-trimoxazole prophylaxis against malaria in HIV exposed children in rural Uganda: a randomised clinical trial. BMJ 342: d1617.
86. VoraN, HomsyJ, KakuruA, ArinaitweE, WanziraH, et al. (2010) Breastfeeding and the risk of malaria in children born to HIV-infected and uninfected mothers in rural Uganda. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 55: 253–261.
87. ArinaitweE, SandisonTG, WanziraH, KakuruA, HomsyJ, et al. (2009) Artemether-lumefantrine versus dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine for falciparum malaria: a longitudinal, randomized trial in young Ugandan children. Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America 49: 1629–1637.
88. (2010) Uganda Clinical Guidelines 2010. National Guidelines on Management of Common Conditions. Kampala, Uganda: Uganda Ministry of Health.
89. WipasaJ, OkellL, SakkhachornphopS, SuphavilaiC, ChawansuntatiK, et al. (2011) Short-lived IFN-gamma effector responses, but long-lived IL-10 memory responses, to malaria in an area of low malaria endemicity. PLoS pathogens 7: e1001281.
90. HorowitzA, NewmanKC, EvansJH, KorbelDS, DavisDM, et al. (2010) Cross-talk between T cells and NK cells generates rapid effector responses to Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes. J Immunol 184: 6043–6052.
91. MaeckerHT, TrotterJ (2006) Flow cytometry controls, instrument setup, and the determination of positivity. Cytometry Part A 69: 1037–1042.
92. LamoreauxL, RoedererM, KoupR (2006) Intracellular cytokine optimization and standard operating procedure. Nat Protoc 1: 1507–1516.
93. McLaughlinBE, BaumgarthN, BigosM, RoedererM, De RosaSC, et al. (2008) Nine-color flow cytometry for accurate measurement of T cell subsets and cytokine responses. Part I: Panel design by an empiric approach. Cytometry Part A 73: 400–410.
94. RoedererM, NozziJL, NasonMX (2011) SPICE: Exploration and analysis of post-cytometric complex multivariate datasets. Cytometry Part A [Epub ahead of print].