1. Damle RN, Wasil T, Fais F, et al. IgVN gene station status and CD38 expression as novel prognostic indicators in chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Blood 1999; 94: 1840–7.
2. Hamblin TJ, Davis Z, Gardiner A, et al. Unmutated IgV(H) genes are associated witha more aggressive formo f chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Blood 1999; 94: 1848–54.
3. Döhner H, Stilgenbauer S, Benner A, et al. Genomic aberrations and survival in chronic lymphocytic leukemia. N Engl J Med 2000; 343: 1910–16.
4. Wiestner A, Rosenwald A, Barry TS, et al. ZAP-70 expression identifies a chronic lymphocytic leukemia subtype with unmutated imunoglobulin genes, inferior clinical outcome, and distinctive gene expression profile. Blood 2003; 101: 4944–51.
5. Peková S, Bezdíčková L, Smolej L, et al. Quantitation of minimal residual disease in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia using locked nucleic acid-modified, fluorescently labeled hybridization probes and real-time PCR technology. Mol Diagn Ther 2007; 11(5): 325–35.
6. Gallagher RE, Yeap BY, Bi W, et al. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis of PML-RAR alpha mRNA in acute promyelocytic leukemia: assessment of prognostic significance in adult patients from intergroup protocol 0129. Blood 2003; 101(7): 2521–8.
7. Diverio D, Rossi V, Avvisati G, et al. Early detection of relapse by prospective reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis of the PML/RARalpha fusion gene in patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia enrolled in the GIMEMA-AIEOP multicenter “AIDA” trial. GIMEMA-AIEOP Multicenter “AIDA” Trial. Blood 1998; 92(3): 784–9.
8. Coustan-Smith E, Sancho J, Hancock ML, et al. Clinical importance of minimal residual disease in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Blood 2000; 96(8): 2691–6.
9. Zhou J, Goldwasser MA, Li A, et al.-Farber Cancer Institute ALL Consortium. Quantitative analysis of minimal residual disease predicts relapse in children with B-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia in DFCI ALL Consortium Protocol 95–01. Blood. 2007; 110(5): 1607–11.
10. Hochhaus A, Reiter A, Saussele S, et al. Molecular heterogeneity in complete cytogenetic responders after interferon-alpha therapy for chronic myelogenous leukemia: low levels of minimal residual disease are associated with continuing remission. German CML Study Group and the UK MRC CML Study Group. Blood 2000; 95(1): 62–6.
11. Bosch F, Ferrer A, López-Guillermo A, et al.; For the GELCAB (Grup per l’Estudi dels Limfomes a Catalunya i Balears). Fludarabine, cyclophosphamide and mitoxantrone in the treatment of resistant or relapsed chronic lymphocytic leukaemia. Br J Haematol 2002;119(4): 976–84.
12. Rawstron AC, Kennedy B, Evans PA, et al. Quantitation of minimal disease levels in chronic lymphocytic leukemia using a sensitive flow cytometric assay improves the prediction of outcome and can be used to optimize therapy. Blood 2001; 98(1): 29–35.
13. Moreton P, Kennedy B, Lucas G, et al. Eradication of minimal residual disease in B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia after alemtuzumab therapy is associated with prolonged survival. J Clin Oncol 2005; 23(13): 2971–9.
14. Wierda W, O’Brien S, Wen S, et al. Chemoimmunotherapy with fludarabine, cyclophosphamide, and rituximab for relapsed and refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia. J Clin Oncol 2005; 23(18): 4070–8.
15. National Cancer Institute. Cancer stat fact sheets: chronic lymphocytic leukemia. 2007;
16. Böttcher S, Ritgen M, Pott C, et al. Comparative analysis of minimal residual disease detection using four-color flow cytometry, consensus IgH-PCR, and quantitative IgH PCR in CLL after allogeneic and autologous stem cell transplantation. Leukemia 2004; 18(10): 1637–45.
17. Vuillier F, Claisse JF, Vandenvelde C, et al. Evaluation of residual disease in B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients in clinical and bone-marrow remission using CD5-CD19 markers and PCR study of gene rearrangements. Leuk Lymphoma 1992; 7(3): 195–204.
18. Rawstron AC, Villamor N, Ritgen M, et al. International standardized approach for flow cytometric residual disease monitoring in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia. Leukemia 2007; 21(5): 956–64.
19. Karkare S, Bhatnagar D. Promising nucleic acid analogs and mimics: characteristic features and applications of PNA, LNA, and morpholino. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2006 Aug;71(5):575–86. Epub 2006 May 9. Review
20. Bosch F, Ferrer A, Villamor N, et al. Fludarabine, cyclophosphamide, and mitoxantrone as initial therapy of chronic lymphocytic leukemia: high response rate and disease eradication. Clin Cancer Res 2008; 14(1): 155–61.
21. Keating MJ, O’Brien S, Albitar M, et al. Early results of a chemoimmunotherapy regimen of fludarabine, cyclophosphamide, and rituximab as initial therapy for chronic lymphocytic leukemia. J Clin Oncol 2005; 23(18): 4079–88.
22. Keating MJ, O’Brien S, Albitar M, Lerner S, Wierda W, Kantarjian H. Extended follow-up of chemo-immunotherapy regimen FCR (fludarabiune, F; cyclophosphamide C and rituximab R) as initial therapy for chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Blood 2005; 106: 599a [abstrakt 2118].
23. O’Brien SM, Kantarjian HM, Thomas DA, et al. Alemtuzumab as treatment for residual disease after chemotherapy in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Cancer 2003; 98(12): 2657–63.
24. Wendtner CM, Ritgen M, Schweighofer CD, et al. German CLL Study Group (GCLLSG). Consolidation with alemtuzumab in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) in first remission—experience on safety and efficacy within a randomized multicenter phase III trial of the German CLL Study Group (GCLLSG). Leukemia 2004; 18(6): 1093–101.
25. Del Poeta G, Del Principe MI, Consalvo MA, et al. The addition of rituximab to fludarabine improves clinical outcome in untreated patients with ZAP-70-negative chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Cancer 2005; 104(12): 2743–52.
26. Montillo M, Tedeschi A, Miqueleiz S, et al. Alemtuzumab as consolidation after a response to fludarabine is effective in purging residual disease in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia. J Clin Oncol 2006; 24(15): 2337–42.
27. Esteve J, Villamor N, Colomer D, et al. Stem cell transplantation for chronic lymphocytic leukemia: different outcome after autologous and allogeneic transplantation and correlation with minimal residual disease status. Leukemia 2001; 15(3): 445–51.
28. Ritgen M, Stilgenbauer S, von Neuhoff N, et al. Graft-versus-leukemia activity may overcome therapeutic resistance of chronic lymphocytic leukemia with unmutated immunoglobulin variable heavy-chain gene status: implications of minimal residual disease measurement with quantitative PCR. Blood 2004; 104(8): 2600–2.
29. Moreno C, Villamor N, Colomer D, et al. Clinical significance of minimal residual disease, as assessed by different techniques, after stem cell transplantation for chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Blood 2006; 107(11): 4563–9.
30. Del Poeta G, Del Principe MI, Buccisano F, et al. Consolidation and maintenance immunotherapy with rituximab improve clinical outcome in patients with B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Cancer 2008; 112(1): 119–28.
31. Nabhan C, Coutré S, Hillmen P. Minimal residual disease in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia: is it ready for primetime? Br J Haematol 2007; 136(3): 379–92.
32. Hallek M, Cheson BD, Catovsky D, et al. Guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia: a report from the International Workshop on Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (IWCLL) updating the National Cancer Institute-Working Group (NCI-WG) 1996 guidelines. Blood 2008; [Epub ahead of print].
33. Cheson BD, Bennett JM, Grever M, et al. National Cancer Institute-sponsored Working Group guidelines for chronic lymphocytic leukemia: revised guidelines for diagnosis and treatment. Blood 1996; 87(12): 4990–7.