Stopkovaný pektorální lalok v rekonstrukci hlavy a krku - technika a přehled


Autoři: Z. Dvořák 1,2,3;  R. Pink 1,4;  P. Michl 1,4;  P. Heinz 1,4;  P. Tvrdý 4,4
Působiště autorů: Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University Hospital Olomouc, Czech Republic 1;  Department of Plastic and Aesthetic Surgery, St. Anne`s University Hospital, Brno, Czech Republic 2;  Faculty of Medicine, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic 3;  Faculty of Medicine, Palacky University, Olomouc, Czech Republic 4
Vyšlo v časopise: ACTA CHIRURGIAE PLASTICAE, 60, 1, 2018, pp. 14-21


Zdroje

1. Ariyan S. The pectoralis major myocutaneous flap. A versatile flap for reconstruction in the head and neck. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1979 Jan;63(1):73-81.

2. Ariyan S. Further experiences with the pectoralis major myocutaneous flap for the immediate repair of defects from excisions of head and neck cancers. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1979 Nov;64(5):605-12.

3. Ariyan S. The functional pectoralis major musculocutaneous island flap for head and neck reconstruction. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1990 Oct;86(4):807-8.

4. Kucur C, Durmus K, Uysal I, et al. Management of complications and compromised free flaps following major head and neck surgery. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2016 Jan;273(1):209-13.

5. Costa H, Zenha H, Sequeira H, et al. Microsurgical reconstruction of the maxilla: Algorithm and concepts. J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg. 2015 May;68(5):e89-e104.

6. Nouraei SA, Middleton SE, Hudovsky A, et al. Role of reconstructive surgery in the management of head and neck cancer: a national outcomes analysis of 11,841 reconstructions. J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg. 2015 Apr;68(4):469-78.

7. Thiele OC, Seeberger R, Engel M, Freier K, Hoffmann J. Development of the clinical use of distant flaps for head and neck reconstruction. J Craniomaxillofac Surg. 2014 Jan;42(1):79-83.

8. Corbitt C, Skoracki RJ, Yu P, Hanasono MM. Free flap failure in head and neck reconstruction. Head Neck. 2014 Oct;36(10):1440–5.

9. O’Neill JP, Shine N, Eadie PA, Beausang E, Timon C. Free tissue transfer versus pedicled flap reconstruction of head and neck malignancy defects. Ir J Med Sci. 2010 Sep;179(3):337–43.

10. Germain MA, Hartl DM, Marandas P, Juliéron M, Demers G. Free flap reconstruction in the treatment of tumors involving the hard palate. Eur J Surg Oncol. 2006 Apr;32(3):335-9.

11. McCrory AL, Magnuson JS. Free tissue transfer versus pedicled flap in head and neck reconstruction. Laryngoscope. 2002 Dec;112(12):2161-5.

12. Eckardt A, Fokas K. Microsurgical reconstruction in the head and neck region: an 18-year experience with 500 consecutive cases. J Craniomaxillofac Surg. 2003 Aug;31(4):197-201.

13. Zhang C, Sun J, Zhu H, et al. Microsurgical free flap reconstructions of the head and neck region: Shanghai experience of 34 years and 4640 flaps. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2015 Jun;44(6):675-84.

14. Cho A, Hall FT. Review of perforator flaps in head and neck cancer surgery. Curr Opin Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2016 Oct;24(5):440-6.

15. Lyons AJ. Perforator flaps in head and neck surgery. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2006 Mar;35(3):199-207.

16. Bravo FG, Schwarze HP. Free-style local perforator flaps: concept and classification system. J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg. 2009 May;62(5):602-8; discussion 609.

17. Singh B, Cordeiro PG, Santamaria E, Shaha AR, Pfister DG, Shah JP. Factors associated with complications in microvascular reconstruction of head and neck defects. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1999 Feb;103(2):403-11.

18. Gadre KS, Gadre P, Sane VD, Halli R, Doshi P, Modi S. Pectoralis major myocutaneous flap--still a workhorse for maxillofacial reconstruction in developing countries. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2013 Nov;71(11):2005.e1-2005.e10.

19. Metgudmath RB, Metgudmath AR, Metgudmath VV, Roy B, Das AT. Versatility of pectoralis major myocutaneous flap in oncosurgery and its role in developing countries. Indian J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2013 Jul;65(Suppl 1):80-4.

20. Milenović A, Virag M, Uglesić V, Aljinović-Ratković N. The pectoralis major flap in head and neck reconstruction: first 500 patients. J Craniomaxillofac Surg. 2006 Sep;34(6):340-3.

21. Vartanian JG, Carvalho AL, Carvalho SM, Mizobe L, Magrin J, Kowalski LP. Pectoralis major and other myofascial/myocutaneous flaps in head and neck cancer reconstruction: experience with 437 cases at a single institution. Head Neck. 2004 Dec;26(12):1018-23.

22. Bhola N, Jadhav A, Borle R, Khemka G, Kumar S, Shrivastava H. Is there still a role for bilobed/bipaddled pectoralis major myocutaneous flap for single-stage immediate reconstruction of post ablative oncologic full-thickness defects of the cheek? Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2015 Jun;19(2):125-31.

23. Liu R, Gullane P, Brown D, Irish J. Pectoralis major myocutaneous pedicled flap in head and neck reconstruction: retrospective review of indications and results in 244 consecutive cases at the Toronto General Hospital. J Otolaryngol. 2001 Feb;30(1):34-40.

24. Avery CM, Gandhi N, Peel D, Neal CP. Indications and outcomes for 100 patients managed with a pectoralis major flap within a UK maxillofacial unit. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2014 May;43(5):546-54.

25. Schneider DS, Wu V, Wax MK. Indications for pedicled pectoralis major flap in a free tissue transfer practice. Head Neck. 2012 Aug;34(8):1106-10.

26. Mallet Y, El Bedoui S, Penel N, Ton Van J, Fournier C, Lefebvre JL. The free vascularized flap and the pectoralis major pedicled flap options: comparative results of reconstruction of the tongue. Oral Oncol. 2009 Dec;45(12):1028-31.

27. Smeele LE, Goldstein D, Tsai V, et al. Morbidity and cost differences between free flap reconstruction and pedicled flap reconstruction in oral and oropharyngeal cancer: Matched control study. J Otolaryngol. 2006 Apr;35(2):102-7.

28. Tsue TT, Desyatnikova SS, Deleyiannis FW, et al. Comparison of cost and function in reconstruction of the posterior oral cavity and oropharynx. Free vs pedicled soft tissue transfer. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1997 Jul;123(7):731-7.

29. Ferrier MB, Spuesens EB, Le Cessie S, Baatenburg de Jong RJ. Comorbidity as a major risk factor for mortality and complications in head and neck surgery. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2005 Jan;131(1):27–32.

30. Gerude MF, Dias FL, de Farias TP, Albuquerque Sousa B, Thuler LC. Predictors of postoperative complications, prolonged length of hospital stay, and short-term mortality in elderly patients with malignant head and neck neoplasm. ORL J Otorhinolaryngol Relat Spec. 2014;76(3):153-64.

31. Kekatpure VD, Trivedi NP, Manjula BV, Mathan Mohan A, Shetkar G, Kuriakose MA. Pectoralis major flap for head and neck reconstruction in era of free flaps. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2012 Apr;41(4):453-7.

32. Schusterman MA, Horndeski G. Analysis of the morbidity associated with immediate microvascular reconstruction in head and neck cancer patients. Head Neck. 1991 Jan-Feb;13(1):51-5.

33. Chepeha DB, Annich G, Pynnonen MA, et al. Pectoralis major myocutaneous flap vs revascularized free tissue transfer: complications, gastrostomy tube dependence, and hospitalization. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2004 Feb;130(2):181-6.

34. Mehta S, Sarkar S, Kavarana N, Bhathena H, Mehta A. Complications of the pectoralis major myocutaneous flap in the oral cavity: a prospective evaluation of 220 cases. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1996 Jul;98(1):31–7.

35. Ord RA. The pectoralis major myocutaneous flap in oral and maxillofacial reconstruction: a retrospective analysis of 50 cases. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 1996 Nov;54(11):1292-5; discussion 1295-6.

36. Talesnik A, Markowitz B, Calcaterra T, Ahn C, Shaw W. Cost and outcome of osteocutaneous free-tissue transfer versus pedicled soft-tissue reconstruction for composite mandibular defects. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1996 May;97(6):1167-78.

37. Kroll SS, Evans GR, Goldberg D, et al. A comparison of resource costs for head and neck reconstruction with free and pectoralis major flaps. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1997 Apr;99(5):1282–6.

38. Shektman A, Silver C, Strauch B. A re-evaluation of hypopharyngeal reconstruction: pedicled flaps versus microvascular free flaps. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1997 Dec;100(7):1691–6.

39. Jing SS, O’Neill T, Clibbon JJ. A comparison between free gracilis muscle flap and pedicled pectoralis major flap reconstructions following salvage laryngectomy. J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg. 2014 Jan;67(1):17-22.

40. van Rossen ME, Verduijn PV, Mureau MA. Survival of pedicled pectoralis major flap after secondary myectomy of muscle pedicle including transection of thoracoacromial vessels: does the flap remain dependent on its dominant pedicle? J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg. 2011 Mar;64(3):323-8.

41. Trignano E, Dessy LA, Fallico N, et al. Treatment of pectoralis major flap myospasms with botulinum toxin type A in head and neck reconstruction. J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg. 2012 Feb;65(2):e23-8.

42. Su WF, Hsia YJ, Chang YC, Chen SG, Sheng H. Functional comparison after reconstruction with a radial forearm free flap or a pectoralis major flap for cancer of the tongue. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2003 Mar;128(3):412-8.

43. Chen WL, Wang YY, Zhang DM, Fan S, Lin ZY. Extended vertical lower trapezius island myocutaneous flap versus pectoralis major myocutaneous flap for reconstruction in recurrent oral and oropharyngeal cancer. Head Neck. 2016 Apr;38 Suppl 1:E159-64.

44. Turkmen A, Perks AG. Endoscopic assisted harvest of the pedicled pectoralis major muscle flap. Br J Plast Surg. 2005 Mar;58(2):170–4.

45. Kuntz AL, Weymuller EA Jr. Impact of neck dissection on quality of life. Laryngoscope. 1999 Aug;109(8):1334-8.

46. Rogers SN, Ferlito A, Pellitteri PK, Shaha AR, Rinaldo A. Quality of life following neck dissections. Acta Otolaryngol. 2004 Apr;124(3):231-6.

47. Cappiello J, Piazza C, Giudice M, De Maria G, Nicolai P. Shoulder disability after different selective neck dissections (levels II-IV versus levels II-V): a comparative study. Laryngoscope. 2005 Feb;115(2):259-63.

48. Refos JW, Witte BI, de Goede CJ, de Bree R. Shoulder morbidity after pectoralis major flap reconstruction. Head Neck. 2016 Aug;38(8):1221-8.

49. Sun Q, Guo S, Wang D, Xu N, Jin SF, Wang CC. Does pectoralis major flap harvesting induce upper extremity dysfunction? J Int Med Res. 2015 Aug;43(4):555-9.

50. Moukarbel RV, Fung K, Franklin JH, et al. Neck and shoulder disability following reconstruction with the pectoralis major pedicled flap. Laryngoscope. 2010 Jun;120(6):1129-34.

51. Hsing CY, Wong YK, Wang CP, et al. Comparison between free flap and pectoralis major pedicled flap for reconstruction in oral cavity cancer patients--a quality of life analysis. Oral Oncol. 2011 Jun;47(6):522-7.

52. Shunyu NB, Medhi J, Laskar HA, Lyngdoh N, Syiemlieh J, Goyal A. 5th Rib Osteo-pectoralis Major Myocutaneous Flap-Still a Viable Option for Mandibular Defect Reconstruction. Indian J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2014 Dec;66(4):414-7.

53. Ribeiro Salles Vanni CM, de Matos LL, Faro Junior MP, et al. Enhanced morbidity of pectoralis major myocutaneous flap used for salvage after previously failed oncological treatment and unsuccessful reconstructive head and neck surgery. ScientificWorld Journal. 2012;2012:384179.

54. McLean JN, Carlson GW, Losken A. The pectoralis major myocutaneous flap revisited: a reliable technique for head and neck reconstruction. Ann Plast Surg. 2010 May;64(5):570–3.

55. Ramakrishnan VR, Yao W, Campana JP. Improved skin paddle survival in pectoralis major myocutaneous flap reconstruction of head and neck defects. Arch Facial Plast Surg. 2009 Sep-Oct;11(5):306–10.

56. Pinto FR, Malena CR, Vanni CM, Capelli Fde A, Matos LL, Kanda JL. Pectoralis major myocutaneous flaps for head and neck reconstruction: factors influencing occurrences of complications and the final outcome. Sao Paulo Med J. 2010 Dec;128(6):336-41.

57. IJsselstein CB, Hovius SE, ten Have BL, Wijthoff SJ, Sonneveld GJ, Meeuwis CA, et al. Is the pectoralis myocutaneous flap in intraoral and oropharyngeal reconstruction outdated? Am J Surg. 1996 Sep;172(3):259–62.

58. Wilson JS, Yiacoumettis AM, O’Neill T. Some observations on 112 pectoralis major myocutaneous flaps. Am J Surg. 1984 Feb;147(2):273–9.

59. Shah JP, Haribhakti V, Loree TR, Sutaria P. Complications of the pectoralis major myocutaneous flap in head and neck reconstruction. Am J Surg. 1990 Oct;160(4):352–5.

60. Wang CH, Wong YK, Wang CP, et al. Risk factors of recipient site infection in head and neck cancer patients undergoing pectoralis major myocutaneous flap reconstruction. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2015 Nov;272(11):3475-82.

61. Khan F, Hameed H, Khan NU, Shah SA. Head and neck reconstruction; our experience of pectoralis major myocutaneous pedicled flap. Professional Med J. 2011 Jun;18(2):310-316.

62. Rudes M, Bilić M, Jurlina M, Prgomet D. Pectoralis major myocutaneous flap in the reconstructive surgery of the head and neck--our experience. Coll Antropol. 2012 Nov;36 Suppl 2:137-42.

63. Biller HF, Baek SM, Lawson W, Krespi YP, Blaugrund SM. Pectoralis major myocutaneous island flap in head and neck surgery: Analysis of complications in 42 cases. Arch Otolaryngol. 1981 Jan;107(1):23-6.

64. Baek SM, Lawson W, Biller HF. An analysis of 133 pectoralis major myocutaneous flaps. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1982 Mar;69(3):460–9.

65. Ossoff RH, Wurster CF, Berktold RE, Krespi YP, Sisson GA. Complications after pectoralis major myocutaneous flap reconstruction of head and neck defects. Arch Otolaryngol. 1983 Dec;109(12):812-4.

66. Avery C. A perspective on the role of the pectoralis major flap in oral and maxillofacial oncology surgery. Oral Surg. 2014;7(3):130–142.

67. Bhaya MH, Har-el G. Resident training in head and neck flap reconstruction in U.S. academic otolaryngology programmes. J Laryngol Otol. 2001 Feb;115(2):119–21.

68. Avery CM, Crank ST, Neal CP, Hayter JP, Elton C. The use of the pectoralis major flap for advanced and recurrent head and neck malignancy in the medically compromised patient. Oral Oncol. 2010 Nov;46(11):829-33.

69. Kroll SS, Goepfert H, Jones M, Guillamondegui O, Schusterman M. Analysis of complications in 168 pectoralis major myocutaneous flaps used for head and neck reconstruction. Ann Plast Surg. 1990 Aug;25(2):93–7.

70. Virós Porcuna D1, León Vintró X, López Vilas M, Pujol Olmo A, Masià Ayala J, Quer Agustí M. Pectoralis major flaps. Evolution of their use in the age of microvascularized flaps. Acta Otorrinolaringol Esp. 2008 Jun-Jul;59(6):263-8.

71. Zbar RI, Funk GF, McCulloch TM, Graham SM, Hoffman HT. Pectoralis major myofascial flap: a valuable tool in contemporary head and neck reconstruction. Head Neck. 1997 Aug;19(5):412–8.

72. Wei FC, Celik N, Yang WG, Chen IH, Chang YM, Chen HC. Complications after reconstruction by plate and soft-tissue free flap in composite mandibular defects and secondary salvage reconstruction with osteocutaneous flap. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2003 Jul;112(1):37-42.

73. Ross G, Yla-Kotola TM, Goldstein D, et al. Second free flaps in head and neck reconstruction. J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg. 2012 Sep;65(9):1165-8.

74. Liu HL, Chan JY, Wei WI. The changing role of pectoralis major flap in head and neck reconstruction. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2010 Nov;267(11):1759-63.

75. Serafin, D. The gracilis muscle-musculocutaneous flap. In: Atlas of Microsurgical Composite Tissue Transplantation. Philadelphia: WB Saunders Company; c1996.p.293-299.

76. Chan YW, Ng RW, Yuen AP. Lateral thoracic flap for donor site repair of pectoralis major myocutaneous flap. J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg. 2009 Aug;62(8):1004-7.

77. Kim EK, Yang SJ, Choi SH. Method to help ensure survival of a very small skin paddle of pectoralis major musculocutaneous flap in head and neck reconstruction. Head Neck. 2013 Aug;35(8):E237-9.

78. Nayak BB, Nilamani M. Single stage reconstructions in head and neck surgery using deltopectoral and pectoralis major myocutaneous flaps. Indian J Plast Surg. 2012 Jan;45(1):151-3.

79. Kanno T, Nariai Y, Tatsumi H, Karino M, Yoshino A, Sekine J. A modified pectoralis major myocutaneous flap technique with improved vascular supply and an extended rotation arc for oral defects: A case report. Oncol Lett. 2015 Nov;10(5):2739-2742.

80. Po-Wing Yuen A. Preservation of lateral thoracic artery to improve vascular supply of distal skin without compromising pedicle length in harvesting pectoralis major myocutaneous flap. J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg. 2006;59(12):1433-5.

81. Kim DM, Jeon A, Kim KY, et al. Neurovascular distribution within the abdominal head of the pectoralis major muscle: Application to breast and flap surgery. Clin Anat. 2015 May;28(4):520-6.

82. Temiz G, Şirinoğlu H, Yeşiloğlu N, et al. A salvage maneuver for the caudal part of the pectoralis major muscle in the reconstruction of superior thoracic wall defects: The pectoralis kite flap. J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg. 2015 May;68(5):698-704.

83. de Azevedo JF. Modified pectoralis major myocutaneous flap with partial preservation of the muscle: a study of 55 cases. Head Neck Surg. 1986 May-Jun;8(5):327–31.

84. Tashiro K, Harima M, Mito D, et al. Preoperative color Doppler ultrasound assessment of the lateral thoracic artery perforator flap and its branching pattern. J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg. 2015 Jun;68(6):e120-5.

85. Bonomi S, Salval A, Sorbi F, Settembrini F. To sever or not the thoracodorsal nerve in latissimus dorsi flap breast reconstruction. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2012 Aug;130(2):367e-368e; author reply 368e-369e.

86. Kääriäinen M, Giordano S, Kauhanen S, Helminen M, Kuokkanen H. No need to cut the nerve in LD reconstruction to avoid jumping of the breast: a prospective randomized study. J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg. 2014 Aug;67(8):1106-10.

87. Szychta P, Butterworth M, Dixon M, Kulkarni D, Stewart K, Raine C. Breast reconstruction with the denervated latissimus dorsi musculocutaneous flap. Breast. 2013 Oct;22(5):667-72.

88. Schroegendorfer KF, Hacker S, Nickl S, Vierhapper M, Nedomansky J, Haslik W. Latissimus dorsi breast reconstruction: how much nerve resection is necessary to prevent postoperative muscle twitching? Plast Reconstr Surg. 2014 Dec;134(6):1125–9.

89. Vanni CM, Pinto FR, de Matos LL, de Matos MG, Kanda JL. The subclavicular versus the supraclavicular route for pectoralis major myocutaneous flap: a cadaveric anatomic study. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2010 Jul;267(7):1141-6.

Štítky
Chirurgie plastická Ortopedie Popáleninová medicína Traumatologie

Článek vyšel v časopise

Acta chirurgiae plasticae

Číslo 1

2018 Číslo 1

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