1. Riffat SM, Tay R, Barros A. Severity of motorcycle crashes in Calgary. Accid Anal Prev (2011), doi:10.1016/j.aap.2011.02.025. In press 2012.
2. European Commission. Transport: motorcycles, mopeds and road safety. Avaible at: http://cc.europa.eu/transport/road_safety/users/motorcyclists-mopeds/index_en.htm.
3. NHTSA. Fatality Analysing Reporting System (FARS) (online). www.fars.nhtsa.dot.gov (cit. 15.09.2008).
4. Lin MR, Kraus JF. A review of risk factors and patterns of motorcycle injuries. Accid Anal Prev 2009; 41: 710–722.
5. Kelly E, Darke S, Ross J. A review of drug use and driving: epidemiology, impairment, risk factors and risk perceptions. Drug Alcohol Rev 2004; 23(3): 319–344.
6. Walsh JM, Gier JJ, Christophersen AS, Verstraete AG. Drugs and driving. Traffic Inj Prev 2004; 5(4): 241–253.
7. Raes E, Neste T, Verstraete AG, Lopez D, Hughes B, Griffiths P. Drug Use, Impaired Driving and Traffic Accidents. European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and DrugAddiction, Lisbon.
8. Straka Ľ, Štuller F, Novomeský F, Zelený M. Dopad akútneho alkoholizmu na mortalitu žien v regióne severného Slovenska. Soud Lek 2009; 54(4): 52–55.
9. Straka Ľ, Štuller F, Novomeský F. Letálne intoxikácie alkoholom a úmrtia v ťažkom stupni opitosti v regióne severného Slovenska v rokoch 1994–1996 a 2003–2005: súdnolekárska komparatívna štúdia. Soud Lek 2008; 53(1): 2–7.
10. Straka Ľ, Štuller F, Novomeský F, Novotný V. Otravy alkoholom a úmrtia v ťažkom stupni opitosti v regióne severného Slovenska: súdnolekárska reflexia. Psychiatrie pro praxi 2008; 9(2): 80–82.
11. Straka, L., Zubor, P., Novomesky, F., et al. Fatal alcohol intoxication in women: A forensic autopsy study from Slovakia. BMC Public Health 2011; 11: 924.
12. Shibata A, Fukuda K. Risk factors of fatality in motor vehicle traffic accidents. Accid anal prev 1994; 26(3): 391–397.
13. Shankar V, Mannering F. An exploratory multinominal logit analysis of single-vehicle motorcycle accident severity. J Safety Res 1996; 27(3): 183–194.
14. Williams M, Hoffman ER. Alcohol use and motorcycle accidents. Accid Anal Prev 1979; 11: 199–207.
15. Evans L. Traffic safety. Bloomfield hills, MI: Science Serving Society. 2004: 444 p.
16. Subramanian R. Alcohol involvement in fatal motor vehicle traffic crashes. NHTSA, Washingron DC, 2003.
17. MAIDS research teams, managemet & expert group. 2009. In- depth investigations of accidents involving powered two wheelers - final report 2.0.ACEM, Brussels, 2009. 179 p.
18. Larsen CF, Hardt-Mansen M. Fatal motorcycle accidents in the county of Funen (Denmark). Forensic Sci Int 1988; 38(1–2): 93–99.
19. Kasantikul V, Ouellet JV, Smith T, Sirathranont J, Panichabhongse V. The role of alcohol in Thailand motorcycle crashes. Accid Anal Prev 2005; 37(2): 357–366.
20. Colburn N, Meyer RD, Wrigley M, Bradley EL. Should motorcycles be operated within the legal alcohol limits for automobiles? J Trauma 1993; 35(2): 183–186.
21. Creaser JI, Ward NJ, Rakauskas ME, Shankwitz C, Boer ER. Effect of alcohol impairment on motorcycle riding skills. Accid Anal Prev 2009; 41: 906–913.
22. Alicioglu B, Yalniz E, Eskin D, Yilmaz B. Injuries associated with motorcycle accident. Acta Orthop Traumatol Turc 2008; 42: 106–111.
23. Nunn S. Death by motorcycle: Background, Behavioral, and Situational Collisions. J Forensic Sci 2011; 56(2): 429–437.
24. Zargar M, Khaji A, Karbakhsh M. Pattern of motorcycle-related injuries in Teheran, 1990 to 2000: a study in 6 hospitals. East Miditerr Health J 2006; 12: 81–87.
25. ETCS, 2007. Social and economic concensequences of road traffic injury in Europe. European transport safety council. Rue du Cornet 22, B-1040 Brussels.
26. Ankarath S, Giannoudis PV, Barlow I, Bellamy MC, Matthews SJ, Smith RM. Injury patterns associated with mortality following motorcycle crashes. Injury 2002; 33: 473–477.
27. Roohi SA, Naicker AS, Shukur MH, Mohammad AR. Spinal injuries in a level-one trauma centre: a demographic study. Med J Malays 2006; 61 (Suppl. A): 30–35.
28. Robertson A, Giannoudis PV, Branfoot T, Barlow I, Matthews SJ, Smith RM. Spinal injuries in motorcycle crashes: patterns and outcome. J Trauma 2002; 53: 5–8.
29. Begg DJ, Langley JD, Reeder AI. Motorcycle crashes in New Zealand resulting in death and hospitalisation. I. Introduction methods and overview. Accid Anal Prev 1994; 26(2): 157–164.
30. Braddock M, Schwartz R, Lapidus G, Banco L, Jacobs L. A population-based study of motorcycle injuries and costs. Ann Emerg Med 1992; 21: 273–278.
31. Kasantikul V, Ouellet JV, Smith TA. Head and neck injuries in fatal motor-cycle collisions as determined by detailed autopsy. Traffic Inj Prev 2002; 4(3): 255–262.
32. Pang TY, Radin Umar RS, et al. Accident characteristics of injured motorcyclists in Malaysia. Med J Malays 2000; 55(1): 45–50.
33. Quddus MA, Noland RB, Chin HC. An analysis of motorcycle injury and vehicle damage severity using ordered probit models. J Saf Res 2002; 33(4): 445–462.
34. Zambon F, Hasselberg M. Factors affecting the severity of injuries among young motorcyclists - a Swedish nationwide cohort study. Traffic Inj Prev 2006; 7: 143–149.
35. Lee J, Mannering F. Impact of roadside features on the frequency and severity of run-off-roadway accidents: an empirical analysis. Accid Anal Prev 2002; 34(2): 149–161.
36. Abdel-Aty M. Analysis of driver injury severity levels at multiple locations using ordered probit models. J Saf Res 2003; 34: 597–603.
37. Holdridge JM, Shankar VN, Ulfarsson GF. The crash severity impacts of fixed roadside objects. J Saf Res 2005; 36: 139–147.
38. Gibson T, Benetatos E. Motorcycles and Crash Barriers. Motorcycle Council of New South Wales, Australia; 2000.
39. Lin MR, Chang SH, Huang W, Hwang HF, Pai L. Factors associated with severity of motorcycle injuries among young adult riders. Ann Emerg Med 2003; 41: 783–791.
40. Tung SH, Wong SV, Law TH, Radin Umar RS. Crashes with roadside objects along motorcycle lanes in Malaysia. Int J Crashworthiness 2008; 13(2): 205–210.
41. Gabler HC. The risk of fatality in motorcycle crashes with roadside barriers. Proceedings of the Twentieth International Conference on Enhanced Safety of Vehicles, 2007, Lyons, France, June, Paper No. 07-L 0474.
42. Berg FA, Rücker P, Gärtner M, König J, Grzebieta R, Zou R. Motorcycle impacts into roadside barriers - real world accident studies, crash test and simulations carried out in Germany and Austria. Proceedings of the 19th International technical conference on the enhanced safety of vehicles; 2005 Jun 6-9; Washington DC, USA. Available at: www. nrd.nhtsa.dot.gov/pdf/ esv/esv20/07-0474-O.pdf (accessed February 1, 2010).
43. Daniello A, Gabler HC. Fatality risk in motorcycle collisions with roadside objects in the United States. Accid Anal Prev 2011; 43(3): 116–1170.
44. Kupferschmid JP, Weaver ML, Raves JJ, Diamond DL. Thoracic spine injuries in victims of motorcycle accidents. J Trauma 1989; 29(5): 593–596.
45. Zulkipli ZH, Rahmat AMA, Faudzi SAM, Paiman NF, Wong SV, Hassan A. Motorcycle-related spinal injury: Crash characteristics. Accid Anal Prev 2012, doi:10.1016/j.aap.2011.12. 011. In press.
46. Simpson DA, Blumbergs PC, Cooter RD, Kilminster M, McLean AJ, Scott G. Pontomedullary tears and other gross brainstem injuries after vehicular accidents. J Trauma 1989; 29(11): 1519–1525.
47. Krantz KPG. Head and neck injuries to motorcycle and moped riders-with special regard to the effect of protective helmets. Injury 1985; 16(4): 253–258.
48. Moskal A, Martin JL, Laumon B. Helmet use and the risk of neck or cervical spine injury among users of motorized two-wheel vehicles. Inj Prev 2008; 14(4): 238–244.
49. O’Connor PJ. Motorcycle helmets and spinal cord injury: helmet usage and type. Traffic Inj Prev 2005; 6: 60–66.
50. Sauter C, Zhu S, Allen S, Hargarten S, Layde PM. Increased risk of death or disability in unhelmeted Wisconsin motorcyclists. Wis Med J 2005; 104(2): 39–44.
51. Goslar PW, Crawford NR, Petersen SR, Wilson JR, Harrington T. Helmet use and associated spinal fractures in motorcycle crash victims. J Trauma 2008; 64: 190–196.
52. Hitosugi M, Takatsu A, Shigeta A. Injuries of Motorcyclists and Bicyclists Examined at Autopsy. Am J Forensic Med Pathol 1999; 20(3): 251–255.
53. Shiono H, Akane A, Matsubara K, Tanabe K, Takahashi S. Identification of the driver in two-rider motorcycle accidents. Inguinal contusion laceration as an indication of the driver. Am J Forensic Med Pathol 1990; 11(3): 190–192.
54. Kurihara K, Kuroda N, Murai T, Yanagida J. Injuries of motorcycle riders. (1) fuel tank injury. Res Pract Forens Med 1988; 31: 275–279.
55. Ihama Y, Fuke Ch, Miyazaki T. A two-rider motorcycle accident involving injuries around groin area in both the driver and the passenger. Legal medicine 2007; 9: 274–277.
56. Ječmenica DS, Alempijević DM, Pavlekić S, Aleksanrić BV. Traumatic testicular displacement in motorcycle drivers. J forensic Sci 2011; 56(2): 541–543.
57. Hejna P, Šafr M, Zátopková L. Reconstruction of devastating head injuries: a useful method in forensic pathology. Int J Legal Med 2011; 125(4): 587–590.
58. Di Maio VJ, Di Maio D. Forensic Pathology, second edition, Washington, D.C.: CRC Press. 2001. 565 p.
59. Brandimarti F, Giacomini I, Fraternale B, Giorgetti R, Tagliabracci A. Massive Lesions Owing to Motorcyclist Impact Against Guardrail Posts: Analysis of Two Cases and Safety Considerations. J Forensic Sci 2011; 56(2): 544–546.
60. Ihama Y, Miyazaki T, Fuke Ch, Niki H, Maehira T. Complete decapitation of a motorcycle driver due to a roadblock chain. Int J Legal Med 2008; 122: 511–515.
61. Schneider IV WH, Savolainen PT, Boxel D, Beverley R. Examination of factors determining fault in two-vehicle motorcycle crashes. Accid Anal Prev 2012; 45: 669–676.
62. Byard RW. Increasing Body Weight of Motorcycle riders (Letter to the Editor). J Forensic Sci 2011; 56(6): 1661.
63. Rosenfeld H, Tsokos M, Byard RW. The association between body mass index and pulmonary thromboembolism in an autopsy population. J Forensic Sci. In press (2012).
64. McLester J, St Pierre P. Linear motion of the system. Applied biomechanics: concepts and connection. Belmont, CA: Cengage Learning, 2008; 153.
65. Savolainen P, Mannering F. Probabilistic models of motorcyclists injury severities in single- and multi-vehicle crashes. Accid Anal Prev 2007; 39(5): 955–963.
66. Mannering FL, Grodsky LL. Statistical analysis of motorcyclists perceived accident risk. Accid Anal Prev 2004; 27(1): 213–222.