Pati ent with di abetes –  internal medicine pati ent

Authors: R. Češka 1,2
Authors‘ workplace: Centrum preventivní kardi ologi e III. interní kliniky 1. lékařské fakulty UK a VFN Praha, přednosta prof. MU Dr. Štěpán Svačina, DrSc., MBA, 2Česká internistická společnost České lékařské společnosti J. E. Purkyně, předseda prof. MU Dr. Richard Češka, CS 1
Published in: Vnitř Lék 2009; 55(Suppl 1)(Supplementum 1): 34-40


Pati ents with type 2 di abetes mellitus (DM2T) are a part of all physici ans’, including internal medicine physici ans’, everyday practice. Furthermore, it is possible to presume that the number of pati ents with di abetes mellitus will incre ase consequent to the obesity and metabolic syndrome epidemic as well as deteri orating lifestyle within the populati on. What is the role of an internal medicine physici an, primary or secondary care‑based, in the care of a DM2T pati ent? It first needs to be taken into acco unt that a pati ent with di abetes is a pati ent with polymorbidity who is at risk of cardi ovascular dise ase as well as nephropathy, infecti ons and other T2DM‑related complicati ons. At the same time, DM2T does not usu ally stand alone, as an isolated disorder, but is often fo und in a cluster together with dyslipidemi a (DLP), hypertensi on (HT), visceral obesity and other disorders. This cluster of disorders co uld be called metabolic syndrome, cardi ometabolic risk or we co uld simply accept the fact that these disorders occur frequently, together and that they jo intly le ad to seri o us complicati ons. Who sho uld then take care of such a pati ent? An internal medicine physici an, primary as well as secondary care‑based (for whom this is the basis of professi onal practice) is not only optimally placed for care of such a pati ent but represent a model of how care for a pati ent with polymorbidity sho uld be conducted. Obvi o usly, care for a DM2T pati ent sho uld be comprehensive. We have to optimize the DM2T therapy as well as to provide effective tre atment of DLP, HT, obesity and other complicati ons. Early di agnosis of DM2T as well as di agnosis of subclinical stages of micro‑ and macro angi opathi es are equ ally important. Evidence‑based medicine sho uld always be considered during therape utic decisi on- making and drugs that provide the most significant benefit to the pati ents sho uld be prescribed. Metformin is the mainstay of DM2T tre atment itself and might be given in combinati on with sulphonylure a derivatives or, possibly, pi oglitazone. Incretins, particularly gliptins sitagliptin and vildagliptin, and GLP‑1 analogues, mainly exenatide, are interesting drug gro ups for a combinati on therapy. Hypertensi on tre atment sho uld include metabolically ne utral or positive drugs, ACE- I, calci um channel blockers or sartans –  among these, metabolically positive telmisartan is preferred. Statins have the most extensive evidence for use in tre atment of DLP in di abetics. Micro angi opathy is best managed with fibrates. Sibutramine is the le ading agent in the tre atment of obesity. Even tho ugh the therape utic overvi ew above focuses on pharmacotherapy, it needs to be emphasised that lifestyle changes, including di et, are the core of tre atment.

Key words:
type 2 di abetes mellitus –  macro angi opathy –  micro angi opathy –  metformin –  pi oglitazone –  sitagliptin –  statins –  fibrates –  ACE- I –  telmisartan –  calci um channel blockers


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