New Insight into Immunopathology of Viral B and C Hepatitis

Authors: I. Kráslová 2;  L. Vítek 2;  L. Muchová 2;  N. V. Naoumov 3
Authors‘ workplace: Ústav klinické biochemie, 1. LF UK, PrahaIV. interní klinika 1. LF UK a VFN, Praha3 Institute of Hepatology, Department of Viral Hepatitis, University College London, London, United Kingdom
Published in: Čas. Lék. čes. 2003; : 590-594


The interaction of non-cythopatic, hepatotropic viruses of hepatitis B and C with the host’s immune system playsa critical role in determining the viral clearance and it contributes to the liver damage. The initial line of defence isantigen non-specific and is mediated by natural killer cells and macrophages. Simultaneously, virus-specificimmunity is induced by professional antigen presenting cells that process and present viral antigens to T and Blymphocytes in the regional lymph nodes. Thereafter, viral specific T helper cells are activated and these cells initiatethe anti-viral immune responses of B and CTL lymphocytes. Early, multispecific T cell responses are associatedwith viral clearance, whereas the imbalance of viral specific Th1 and Th2 lymphocytes plays a crucial role in theviral persistence. The imbalance of viral specific Th1 and Th2 lymphocytes leads to inadequate activation of antigenspecific CTL cells. After recognition of viral antigens, T helper lymphocytes are differentiated to Th1 and Th2 cellsaccording to the type of secreted cytokines. Th1 cells produce cytokines: interleukin-2, IFN-γ, TNF-α, which areresponsible for effective activation of CTL cells. In contrast, interleukin-4, interleukin-5 and interleukin-10 aresecreted by Th2 cells, which are involved in activation of B lymphocytes and in production of neutralizing antibodies.These finding suggests that the viral clearance is associated with the early development and adequate mounting ofthe anti-viral multispecific immune responses of T helper and cytotoxic T lymphocytes.

Key words:
immunopathology, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, immune response, viral clearance.

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Addictology Allergology and clinical immunology Angiology Audiology Clinical biochemistry Dermatology & STDs Paediatric gastroenterology Paediatric surgery Paediatric cardiology Paediatric neurology Paediatric ENT Paediatric psychiatry Paediatric rheumatology Diabetology Pharmacy Vascular surgery Pain management

Article was published in

Journal of Czech Physicians

2003 Issue 10

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