Increase of pollinosis among school youth in town and in countryside in recent 20 years (1988–2009)


Authors: D. Tilandyová 1;  M. Helbich 2;  L. Koller 3
Authors‘ workplace: Detská alergologická ambulancia, Poliklinika, s. r. o., Trenčín, Caldera s. r. o., Bratislava , GSK Slovakia s. r. o., Bratislava 1
Published in: Čes-slov Pediat 2012; 67 (1): 27-32.
Category: Original Papers

Overview

Prevalence of allergic diseases increased greatly in recent decades, especially in children. The most frequent allergic disease in school age is seasonal allergic rhinitis caused by pollen – pollinosis.

Objective:
The aim of this study was to obtain the actual epidemiologic data of pollen allergy prevalence and to compare them with the results of epidemiologic survey from 1988.

Methods:
From December 2008 till February 2009 we had examined primary school pupils in the town and in the countryside (total number of pupils 1017), where the survey was performed also 20 years ago. Questionnaires with questions about allergic diseases, respiratory infects, ORL operations and those about demographic data were given to parents,. We collected 602 evaluable questionnaires, 495 children were prick-tested for pollen allergen Grass mixture 5. 135 children, who had positive allergic reaction, underwent complete allergological examination. Presence of allergy is assessed based on positivity of prick test. Latent allergy is considered when parents have not reported any clinical signs of allergy (rhinitis, skin disorders, food intolerance, etc.), but skin prick test is positive.

Results:
In the town-school, the presence of pollen allergy was found in 23.3% of children (95% CI=17.6–28.9%), from which 5.6% is in latent form (positive skin tests, negative clinical manifestations). In the village-school, the prevalence of pollen allergy was 15.5% (95% CI=11.0–19.9%), from which 4.8% is in latent form). For comparison – the results from 1988 were: prevalence in town was 11.8% (3.4% latent form) and in countryside it was 4.8% (2.2% latent form). Observed increase is statistically significant p<0.01.

The most frequent manifestation was allergic rhinitis - 34.2% (95% CI=31.5–36.9%) among all children. The prevalence was not significantly higher in boys compared to girls in rate of 1.3:1 (p=0.11). Up to 50% of children reported at least 1 allergic manifestation.

The prevalence of allergic rhinitis was higher in the town (p=0.013), in children of parents with higher education (education of mother p=0.057, education of father p=0.002) and with positive history of allergic diseases in parents or siblings (p<0.001).

Conclusion:
Comparing the results from 1988 and 2008/2009 we discovered, that the prevalence of pollinosis in the town has doubled and in the countryside even trebled in recent 20 years.

Key words:
pollinosis, school age, town, countryside


Sources

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Labels
Neonatology Paediatrics General practitioner for children and adolescents

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