Cardiohepatic syndrome in patients with chronic heart failure


Authors: O. Ludka 1,2;  J. Hlásenský 1;  J. Špinar 1,2
Authors‘ workplace: Interní kardiologická klinika LF MU a FN Brno 1;  Mezinárodní centrum klinického výzkumu, FN u sv. Anny v Brně 2
Published in: Kardiol Rev Int Med 2014, 16(1): 21-24
Category: Cardiology Review

Overview

Heart failure is a major health problem of this century, with frequent repeated hospitalizations, deteriorated quality of life and worsened prognosis. Progression of heart failure is often characterized by an increasing inability of the heart to meet the metabolic demands of most organs. While the consequences of heart failure on renal function (cardiorenal syndrome) have been described many times, a comprehensive description of the impact of heart failure on liver function (cardiohepatic syndrome), including clinical presentation, biochemical profiles, and histological findings is still lacking in our literature, as is a description of the use of liver function tests as a prognostic marker in patients with heart failure.

Keywords:
chronic heart failure –  cardiohepatic syndrome –  prognosis


Sources

1. Smith GL, Lichtman JH, Bracken MB et al. Renal impairment and outcomes in heart failure: systematic review and meta‑analysis. J Am Coll Cardiol 2006; 47: 1987– 1996.

2. Boland EW, Willius FA. Changes in the liver produced by chronic passive congestion: with special reference to the problem of cardiac cirrhosis. Arch Intern Med 1938; 62: 723– 739. doi:10.1001/ archinte.1938.00180160002001.

3. Sherlock S. The liver in heart failure; relation of anatomical, functional, and circulatory changes. Br Heart J 1951; 13: 273– 293.

4. Giallourakis CC, Rosenberg PM, Friedman LS. The liver in heart failure. Clin Liver Dis 2002; 6: 947– 967.

5. Seeto RK, Fenn B, Rockey DC. Ischemic hepatitis: clinical presentation and pathogenesis. Am J Med 2000; 109: 109– 113.

6. Henrion J, Descamps O, Luwaert R et al. Hypoxic hepatitis in patients with cardiac failure: incidence in a coronary care unit and measurement of hepatic blood flow. J Hepatol 1994; 21: 696– 703.

7. Kalambokis G, Manousou P, Vibhakorn S et al. Trans­jugular liver bio­psy indications, adequacy, quality of specimens, and complications. A systematic review. J Hepatol 2007; 47: 284– 294.

8. Henrion J, Schapira M, Luwaert R et al. Hypoxic hepatitis: clinical and hemodynamic study in 142 consecutive cases. Medicine (Baltimore) 2003; 82: 392– 406.

9. Nikolaou M, Parissis J, Yilmaz MB et al. Liver function abnormalities, clinical profile, and outcome in acute decompensated heart failure. Eur Heart J 2013; 34: 742– 749. doi: 10.1093/ eurheartj/ ehs332.

10. Naschitz JE, Slobodin G, Lewis RJ et al. Heart diseases affecting the liver and liver diseases affecting the heart. Am Heart J 2000; 140: 111– 120.

11. Henrion J. Hypoxic hepatitis. Liver Int 2012; 32: 1039– 1052. doi: 10.1111/ j.1478– 3231.2011.02655.x.

12. Ruttmann E, Brant LJ, Concin H et al. Gamma‑ glutamyltransferase as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease mortality: an epidemiological investigation in a cohort of 163,944 Austrian adults. Circulation 2005; 112: 2130– 2137.

13. Szyguła‑ Jurkiewicz B, Wojnicz R, Lekstron Aet al. [Effect of elevated bilirubin levels on the long‑term outcome in patients with chronic heart failure due to hypertension]. Pol Arch Med Wewn 2007; 117: 227– 233.

14. Kubo SH, Walter BA, John DH et al. Liver function abnormalities in chronic heart failure. Influence of systemic hemodynamics. Arch Intern Med 1987; 147: 1227– 1230.

15. Lau GT, Tan HC, Kritharides L. Type of liver dysfunction in heart failure and its relation to the severity of tricuspid regurgitation. Am J Cardiol 2002; 90: 1405– 1409.

16. Allen LA, Felker GM, Pocock S et al. Liver function abnormalities and outcome in patients with chronic heart failure: data from the Candesartan in Heart Failure: Assessment of Reduction in Mortality and Morbidity (CHARM) program. Eur J Heart Fail 2009; 11: 170– 177. doi: 10.1093/ eurjhf/ hfn031.

17. Horwich TB, Kalanter‑ Zadeh K, MacLellan RW et al. Albumin levels predict survival in patients with systolic heart failure. Am Heart J 2008; 155: 883– 889. doi: 10.1016/ j.ahj.2007.11.043.

18. Fuhrman MP, Charney P, Mueller CM. Hepatic proteins and nutrition assessment. J Am Diet Assoc 2004; 104: 1258– 1264.

19. Don BR, Kaysen G. Serum albumin: relationship to inflammation and nutrition. Semin Dial 2004; 17: 432– 437.

20. Poelzl G, Ess M, Mussner‑ Seeber C et al. Liver dysfunction in chronic heart failure: prevalence, characteristics and prognostic significance. Eur J Clin Invest 2012; 42: 153– 163. doi: 10.1111/ j.1365– 2362.2011.02573.x.

21. Poelzl G, Eberl C, Achrainer H et al. Prevalence and prognostic significance of elevated gamma‑ glutamyltransferase in chronic heart failure. Circ Heart Fail 2009; 2 :294– 302. doi: 10.1161/ CIRCHEARTFAILURE.108.826735.

22. Matthews JC, Koelling TM, Pagani FD et al. The right ventricular failure risk score: a pre‑operative tool for assessing the risk of right ventricular failure in left ventricular assist device candidates. J Am Coll Cardiol 2008; 51: 2163– 2172. doi: 10.1016/ j.jacc.2008.03.009.

23. Uthamalingam S, Kandala J, Daley M et al. Serum albumin and mortality in acutely decompensated heart failure. Am Heart J 2010; 160: 1149– 1155. doi: 10.1016/ j.ahj.2010.09.004.

24. Kinugasa Y, Kato M, Sugihara S et al. A simple risk score to predict in‑hospital death of elderly patients with acute decompensated heart failured hypoalbuminemia as an additional prognostic factor. Circ J 2009; 73: 2276– 2281.

25. Kato TS, Schulze PC, Yang J et al. Pre‑operative and post‑operative risk factors associated with neurologic complications in patients with advanced heart failure supported by a left ventricular assist device. J Heart Lung Transplant 2012; 31: 1– 8. doi: 10.1016/ j.healun.2011.08.014.

26. Fauci AS, Braunwald E, Kasper DL et al. Harrison’s Principles of Internal Medicine. Vol 2. New York: McGraw‑ Hill Medical, 2008.

27. Hepner GW, Vesell ES, Tantum KR. Reduced drug elimination in congestive heart failure. Studies using aminopyrine as a model drug. Am J Med 1978; 65: 371– 376.

28. Samsky MD, Patel CB, DeWald TA et al. Cardiohepatic interactions in heart failure an overview and clinical implications. J Am Coll Cardiol 2013; 61: 2397– 2405. doi: 10.1016/ j.jacc.2013.03.042.

29. White TJ, Leevy CM, Brusca AM et al. The liver in congestive heart failure. Am Heart J 1955; 49: 250– 257.

30. Bjerkelund CJ, Gleditsch E. Hypoprothrombinemia; occurrence and prognostic significance in congestive heart failure. Acta Med Scand 1953; 145: 181– 188.

31. Kisloff B, Schaffer G. Fulminant hepatic failure secondary to congestive heart failure. Dig Dis Sci 1976; 21: 895– 900.

32. Dichtl W, Vogel W, Dunst KM et al. Cardiac hepatopathy before and after heart transplantation. Transpl Int 2005; 18: 697– 702.

33. Chokshi A, Cheema FH, Schaefle KJ et al. Hepatic dysfunction and survival after orthotopic heart transplantation: application of the MELD scoring system for outcome prediction. J Heart Lung Transplant 2012; 31: 591– 600. doi: 10.1016/ j.healun.2012.02.008.

34. Cannon RM, Hughes MG, Jones CM et al. A review of the United States experience with combined heart‑liver transplantation. Transpl Int 2012; 25: 1223– 1228. doi: 10.1111/ j.1432– 2277.2012.01551.x.

Labels
Paediatric cardiology Internal medicine Cardiac surgery Cardiology
Login
Forgotten password

Don‘t have an account?  Create new account

Forgotten password

Enter the email address that you registered with. We will send you instructions on how to set a new password.

Login

Don‘t have an account?  Create new account