Conduct Disorders in Seven-year-old Children – Results of ELSPAC Study. 2. Risk Factors


Authors: L. Kukla 1;  D. Hrubá 2;  M. Tyrlík 3;  H. Matějová 2
Authors‘ workplace: Výzkumné pracoviště preventivní a sociální pediatrie LF MU, Brno 1;  Ústav preventivního lékařství LF MU, Brno 2;  Psychologický ústav FF MU, Brno 3
Published in: Čas. Lék. čes. 2008; 147: 311-318
Category: Original Article

Overview

Background.
Conduct disorders related to hyperactivity and significant attention deficit are caused by several types of risk factors-genetic, biological, environmental and psychosocial. A cohort of children was followed longitudinally in a prospective study during the pregnancy and childhood (ELSPAC). In the age of 7 years, marked behavioural divergences were described in 4,4% of children by their attending physicians. These children were also more often afflicted by other pathological symptoms (hyperactivity, sleep and psychomotor disorders). From the data collected from parents and physicians in the previous phases of investigation we selected possible risk factors which affect the prenatal and postnatal periods: prenatal exposure of children to smoking, alcohol, chemical substances, prenatal development complications, the level of education of parents, family dysfunction, alcoholism of both parents, conflicts with the police, mother’s disturbed mental health.

Methods and Results.
In the sample of 3752 children from the city of Brno, no behavioural divergence was found in 96.5% of cases. The presence of one or two of the four observed divergences occurred in 3.2% and 3 to 4 conduct disorder symptoms occurred in 0.3% children, significantly more often in boys. The children with conduct disorders compared to the children with no symptoms had significantly lower average birth-weight, lower head circumference, their mothers had more often lower education, smoked and had psychological problems in childhood and as adults and the fathers had more often conflicts with the law.

Conclusions.
The ELSPAC study did not have the methodological possibility of studying the genetic-environmental interactions; nevertheless it contributes to the evidence supporting that some factors can negatively effect the foetal development and the unfavourable family environment can participate in the development of conduct disorders which can progress during lifetime.

Key words:
conduct disorders in childhood, prenatal risk factors, parents’ psychosocial factors, ELSPAC.


Sources

1. Peterson, J. L., Zill, N.: Marital disruption, parent-child relationships, and behavioral problems in children. J. Marriage. Fem. 1986, 48, s. 295–307.

2. Biederman, J., Faraone, S. V.: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. The Lancet, 2005, 366, s. 237–248.

3. Faraone, S. V., Sergeant, J., Gillberg, C., Biederman, J.: The worldwide prevalence of ADHD: is it an American condition? World Psychiatry, 2003, 2, s. 104–113.

4. Kukla L., Hrubá D., Tyrlík M., Matějová H.: Poruchy chování u sedmiletých dětí – výsledky studie ELSPAC – 1. Komorbidita. Čas. Lék. čes., 2008, 147, s. 269-277.

5. Thapar, A., Holmes, J., Poulton, K., Harrington, R.: Genetic basis of attention deficit and hyperactivity. Br. J. Psychiatry, 1999, 174, s. 105-111.

6. Thapar, A., O’Donovan, M., Owen, M. J.: The genetics and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Hum. Mol. Genetics, 2005, 14, Rev Issue 2, s. R275–R282.

7. Weitzman, M., Gortmaker, S., Sobol, A.: Maternal smoking and behavioral problems of children. Pediatrics, 90, 1992, s. 342–349.

8. Thapar, A., Fowler, T., Rice, F. et al.: Maternal smoking during pregnancy and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms in offspring. Am. J. Psych., 2003, 160, s. 1985–1989.

9. Marcussen-Linnet, K.,M., Dalsgaard, S., Obel, C. et al.: Maternal lifestyle factors in pregnancy risk of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and associated behaviors: a review of the current evidence. Am. J. Psych., 2003, 160, s. 1028–1040.

10. Mick, E., Biederman, J., Faraone, S. V. et al.: Case-control study of attention-deficit / hyperactivity disorder and maternal smoking, alcohol use, and drug use during pregnancy. J. Am. Acad. Child. Adolesc. Psychiatry, 2002, 41, s. 378–385.

11. Van De Kamp, J., Collins, A.: Prenatal nicotine alters nicotinic receptor development in the mouse brain. Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav., 2004, 47, s. 889–900.

12. Fung, Y. K., Lau, Y. S.: Effects of prenatal nicotine exposure on rat strial dopaminergic and nicotinic systems. Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav., 1989, 33, s. 1–6.

13. Roy, T. S., Seidler, F. J., Slotkin, T. A.: Prenatal nicotine exposure evokes alterations of cell structure in hippocampus and somatosensory cortex. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther., 2002, 300, s. 124–133.

14. Hellstrom-Lindhal, E., Seiger, A., Kjaeldgaard, A., Nordberg, A.: Nicotine- induced alterations in the expression of nicotinic receptors in primary cultures from human prenatal brain. Neuroscience, 2001, 105, s. 527–534.

15. Boksa, P., El-Khodor, B. F.: Birth insult interacts with stress at adulthood to alter dopaminergic function in animal models: possible implications for schizophrenia and other disorders. Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev., 2003, 27, s. 91–101.

16. Mattson, S. N., Riley, E. P.: A review of the neurobehavioral deficits in children with fetal alcohol syndrome or prenatal exposure to alcohol. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 1998, 22, s. 279–294.

17. Mattson, S. N., Schoenfeld, A. M., Riley, E. P.: Teratogenic effects of alcohol on brain and behavior. Alcohol Research and Health, 2001, 25, s. 185–191.

18. Coffin, J. M., Baroody, S., Schneider, K., O’Neill, J.: Impaired cerebellar learning in children with prenatal alcohol exposure: a comparative study of eyeblink conditioning in children with ADHD and dyslexia. Cortex, 2005, 41, s. 389–398.

19. Thomas, J. D., Goodlett, C. R., West, J. R.: Alcohol-induced Purkyne cell loss depends on developmental timing of alcohol exposure and correlates with motor performance. Develop. Brain Res., 1998, 105, s. 159–166.

20. Bhutta, A. T., Cleves, M. A., Casey, P. H. et al.: Cognitive and behavioral outcomes of school-aged children who were born preterm: a meta-analysis. JAMA, 2002, 288, s. 728–737.

21. Hack, M., Youngstrom, E. A., Cartar, O. et al.: Behavioral outcomes and evidence of psychopathology among very low birth weight infants at age 20 years. Pediatrics, 2004, 114, s. 932–940.

22. Indredavik, M. S., Vik, T., Heyerdahl, S. et al.: Psychiatric symptoms and disorders in adolescents with low birth weight. Arch. Dis. Child Fetal Neonatal Ed., 2004, 89, s. F445–F450.

23. Lahey, B. B., Piacentini, J. C., McBurnett, K. et al.: Psychopathology in the parents of children with conduct disorder and hyperactivity. J. Am. Acad. Child Adolesc. Psychiatry, 1988, 27, s. 163–170.

24. Biederman, J., Faraone, S. V., Monuteaux, M. C.: Differential effect of environmental adversity by gender: Rutteręs index of adversity in a sample of boys and girls with and without ADHD. Am. J. Psychiatry, 2002, 159, s. 1556–1562.

25. Edwards, M. C., Schulz, E. G., Long, N.: The role of the family in the assessment of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Clin. Psychol. Rev., 1995, 15, s. 375–394.

26. Gelfand, D. M., Teti, D. M.: The effects of maternal depression on children. Clin. Psychol. Rev., 1990, 10, s. 329–353.

27. Nigg, J. T., Hinshaw, S. P.: Parent personality traits and psychopathology associated with antisocial behaviours in childhood attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. J. Child. Psychol. Psychiatry, 1998, 39, s. 451–466.

28. Richters, J. E.: Depressed mothers as informants about their children: a critical review of the evidence for distortion. Psychol. Bull., 1992, 112, s. 485–499.

29. Williams, C., Wright, B., Partidge, I.: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder – a review. Br. J. Gen. Pract., 1999, 49, s. 563–571.

30. He, Y., Yang, X., Xu, F.: Application of Conner Rating Scales in the study of lead exposure and behavioral effects in children. Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi, 2000, 34, s. 290–293 (anglický abstrakt).

31. Toren, P., Sofia, E., Sela, B. A. et al.: Zinc deficiency in ADHD, Biol. Psychiatry, 1996, 40, s. 1308B-1310B.

32. Arnold, E. L., DiSilvestro, R. A.: Zinc in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. J. Child. Adolesc. Psychopharmacol., 2005, 15, s. 619–627.

33. Tiret, L.: Gene-environment interaction: a central concept in multifactorial diseases. Proc. Nutr. Soc., 2002, 61, s. 457–463.

34. Rutter, M., Silberg, J.: Gene-environment interplay in relation to emotional and behavioral disturbance. Annu. Rev. Psychol., 2002, 53, s. 463–490.

35. Caspi, A., McClay, J., Moffitt, T. E. et al.: Role of genotype in the cycle of violence in maltreated children. Science, 2002, 297, s. 851–854.

36. Khan, R. S., Khoury, J., Nichols, W. C., Lanphear, B. P.: Role of dopamine transporter genotype and maternal prenatal smoking in childhood hyperactive-impulsive, inattentive and oppositional behaviors. J. Pediatr., 2003, 143, s. 104–110.

Labels
Addictology Allergology and clinical immunology Angiology Audiology Clinical biochemistry Dermatology & STDs Paediatric gastroenterology Paediatric surgery Paediatric cardiology Paediatric neurology Paediatric ENT Paediatric psychiatry Paediatric rheumatology Diabetology Pharmacy Vascular surgery Pain management fenix.admin.empty
Login
Forgotten password

Don‘t have an account?  Create new account

Forgotten password

Enter the email address that you registered with. We will send you instructions on how to set a new password.

Login

Don‘t have an account?  Create new account