Human genome sequencing – next generation technology or will the routine sequencing of human genome be possible?

Authors: Š. Pospíšilová;  B. Tichý;  J. Mayer
Authors‘ workplace: Fakultní nemocnice Brno a LF MU, Interní hematoonkologická klinika, Centrum molekulární biologie a genové terapie
Published in: Čas. Lék. čes. 2009; 148: 296-302
Category: Topic


DNA sequencing has become a standard method widely used in molecular genetic analysis of biological materials. Its use in medicine is widespread, especially in diagnostics of inherited disorders and cancer related diseases. Development of DNA diagnostics has been strongly accelerated by publication of the human genome sequence in 2001. During the last few years one can observe rapid development of novel sequencing technologies, which have led to the introduction of so called „New Generation Sequencing“. These new technologies based on principles of massive parallel sequencing (e.g. Roche/454, Illumina Genome Analyzer IIx, Life Technologies SOLiD 3 and others) enable a massive increase of sequencing capacity and in parallel also a fundamental decrease of costs. This major technological breakthrough allowed development of the whole-genome sequencing including analyses of individual human genomes. It also started the era of personal genomics. The first sequenced individual human genomes belonged to famous geneticists J. C. Venter (2007) and J. D. Watson (2008), but they were rapidly followed by sequencing analyses of other individuals from various ethnic groups. These studies brought substantial information about interpersonal differences in genome structure (through characterization of nucleotide polymorphisms, DNA deletions and amplifications etc.). Sequencing of cancer cell genomes, e.g. acute myeloid leukemia has already brought first important clinically relevant results. Although currently we are still unable to interpret the relevance of all detected genome variants, it is obvious, that the possibility to sequence individual human genomes represents a fundamental breakthrough not only in DNA diagnostics but also in clinical medicine.

Key words:
genome, DNA, sequencing, next-generation sequencing.


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