Changes in Serum and Adipose Tissue Fatty Acid Composition after Low Calorie Diet with Respect to Dietary Fat Content in Obese

Authors: M. Vecka ;  B. Richterová 1;  A. Žák ;  E. Tvrzická ;  P. Šrámková 1;  B. Staňková ;  E. Klimčáková 1;  V. Štich 1
Authors‘ workplace: IV. interní klinika 1. LF UK a VFN, Praha ;  Oddělení tělovýchovného lékařství 3. LF UK, Praha 1
Published in: Čas. Lék. čes. 2006; 145: 464-469
Category: Original Article


Recently, a new attention has been paid to beneficial effects of high-fat diet on the body weight reduction and metabolic profile in obese subjects. In this study we compared the effects of two hypocaloric diets with different proportion of fat on fatty acid composition (FA) in blood and adipose tissue (AT). 

Methods and Results.
Forty-four obese subjects were submitted to 10 weeks’ low-calorie diet. Subjects were randomized into low-fat diet (LFD) (20–25 % of energy content) and high-fat diet groups (HFD) (40–45 %). Before and at the end of the intervention, samples of blood and subcutaneous AT were taken for the analysis of fatty acid composition. The diet-induced body weight and fat mass reduction were not different between the two diets. Plasma triacylglycerols (TAG) were reduced during HFD only. Both diets reduced proportion of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in AT and of saturated fatty acid in blood TAG, with no difference between the diets. HFD induced a higher increase of monounsaturated fatty acids in blood TAG. No other diet-induced changes were found in proportion of major classes of fatty acids. In respect to individual fatty acids, the diets induced a number of changes in AT and blood, the changes, however, not being different between the diets. 

Hypocaloric diets induce a number of changes in fatty acid composition in blood and adipose tissue, with little differences in respect to the proportion of fat in the diet. The results suggest the diet-induced changes in fatty acid composition are controlled by the calorie deficit of the diet and the proportion of dietary fat plays a minor role. 

Key words:
obesity, hypocaloric diet, serum lipids, fatty acids, adipose tissue.

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