Metabolic syndrome in patients with diabetes mellitus type 1, prevalence, impact on morbidity and mortality


Authors: Jitka Brožová;  Daniela Čechurová;  Silvie Lacigová
Authors‘ workplace: Diabetologické centrum I. interní kliniky LF UK a FN Plzeň
Published in: Vnitř Lék 2016; 62(Suppl 4): 8-14
Category: Original Contributions

Předneseno na 52. diabetologických dnech v Luhačovicích dne 15. 4. 2016

Overview

Aim of this retrospective observational study was to determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) in patients with diabetes mellitus type 1 (DM1Z) at baseline (in 2003) and find the parameters that determine the difference between group with (MS+) and without MS (MS-). Did the presence of MS affect morbidity and mortality in the subsequent 10 years?

Methods:
278 patients were enrolled to the study with age average 39 ± 13 years with medical history of diabetes 15.9 ± 9 years. The IDF criteria were used for MS diagnosis. Anthropometric and biochemical parameters, prevalence and incidence of microangiopathic and macroangiopathic complications were checkedat baseline and after 10 years.

Results:
MS was diagnosed in 16.2 % (45) patients. MS+ group was older (p < 0.001), with a longer duration of DM (p < 0.05), which is manifested in the elderly patients (p < 0.01), with higher weight (p < 0.001), less compensation (p < 0.05), a higher value of blood pressure (p < 0.001) and reduced glomerular filtration rate (p < 0.001). MS correlated from microvascular complications with proteinuria (p < 0.001), with peripheral and cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (p < 0.001) and with retinopathy (p < 0.01). Patients with MS had often chronic ischemic heart disease (p < 0.01), with absence of other macroangiopatic complications. After 10 years the number of patients with newly diagnosed retinopathy (p < 0.05), with chronic ischemic heart disease (p < 0.01) and with other macroangiopathy (p < 0.05) increased in MS+ group. The number of other microvascular complication sincreased, but similarly in both groups. On the other hand, in MS+ group both systolic (p < 0.01), diastolic pressure (p < 0.05) significantly decreased and values of glycosylated hemoglobin (p < 0.05) improved compared to group MS- within 10 years. 18 patients died, with higher incidence in MS+ group (p < 0.05; 13.3 % vs 5.2 %). Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy was observed as the most serious risk factor for mortality (p < 0.05), also age was almost significant (p = 0.08).

Conclusion:
The prevalence of MS is increasing even patients with DM1T are affected. The study shows the negative impact of MS on diabetic complications and mortality and demonstrates that early diagnosis and treatment of individual components of MS as very important.

Key words:
cardiovascular diseases – diabetes mellitus type 1 – insulin distance – metabolic syndrome – microvascular complications – mortality


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Diabetology Endocrinology Internal medicine

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