Pathogenesis, diagnostics and therapy of gout

Authors: M. Žurek
Authors‘ workplace: III. interní klinika Lékařské fakulty UP a FN Olomouc, přednosta prof. MUDr. Vlastimil Ščudla, CSc.
Published in: Vnitř Lék 2006; 52(7-8): 736-741
Category: 130th Internal Medicine Day - Rheumatology in clinical practice


Gout refers to heterogeneous group of metabolic diseases characterized by production of deposits of sodium urate crystals in tissues. Gout manifests as acute gouty arthritis with classic clinical picture, or as chronic gouty arthropathy with periarticular and subcutaneous deposits of sodium urate crystals, i.e. tophi. As for kidney, gout is manifested as acute or chronic gouty nephropathy and urolithiasis. These manifestations occur separately or they are combined. Hyperuricemia of primary gout is caused rather by impaired renal secretion than overproduction of uric acid. Secondary hyperuricemia is associated with many pathological conditions; it is also connected with the use of various medicaments. Pathogenesis of gouty arthritis is critically influenced by sodium urate crystals and inflammatory processes they induce. Hyperuricemia is part of metabolic syndrome X which is associated with unanswered question of the relationship between uric acid and atherosclerosis. Although gouty arthritis is the most frequent inflammatory disease of joints in men over 50 years of age, it is often diagnosed and treated inadequately. On that account, the indication of long-term hypouricemic therapy should be always based on the following criteria: secondary causes of hyperuricemia have to be excluded first; frequency of gout attacks and the risk of their recurrence should be taken into consideration; then it is necessary to search for renal manifestations of gout; and last but not least, we should check whether there are any associated diseases classified in metabolic syndrome X.

Key words:
gout – hyperuricemia – gouty arthritis – chronic tophaceous gout – asymptomatic hyperuricaemia – therapy of gout


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