Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs and the kidney


Authors: J. Zadražil
Authors‘ workplace: III. interní klinika Lékařské fakulty UP a FN, Olomouc, přednosta prof. MUDr. Vlastimil Ščudla, CSc.
Published in: Vnitř Lék 2006; 52(7-8): 686-690
Category: 130th Internal Medicine Day - Rheumatology in clinical practice

Overview

Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have potentially important renal adverse effects. With regard to renal adverse effects there is no indication of significant differences between conventional NSAIDs and selective COX-2 inhibitors. Their nephrotoxicity has been well documented. Many of the renal abnormalities that are encountered as a result of NSAIDs use can be attributed to the inhibition of prostaglandins synthesis. The release of prostaglandins is particulary importent in high-risk patients, including patients with severe heart disease, liver disease, preexisting renal disease, elderly and patients with volume depletion. The common complication of NSAID use is retention of sodium and edema formation due to increased reabsorption of sodium and water in the loop of Henle and hyperkalemie due to diminished renin secretion. Nonsteroidal antiiflammatory drugs can induce two different forms of acute renal failure. Decreased prostaglandin synthesis can lead to reversible renal ischemia and hemodynamically-mediated acute renal failure. Second form of acute renal failure is acute interstitial nephritis. This type of interstitial nephritis is often accompanied by nephrotic syndrome due to minimal change disease. Nephrotic syndrome after NSAIDs treatments may be also associated with membranous nephropathy. Another complication of NSAIDs treatment is modest rise of systemic blood pressure in some hypertensive patients due to increase in renal and systemic vascular resistence. In patients consuming excessive amount of NSAIDs over a prolonged period of years papillary necrosis can occur. Exposure to large quantities of NSAIDs can probably induce in some patients chronic renal insufficiency.

Key words:
nonsteroidal antiiflammatory drugs - prostaglandins - acute renal failure - acute intestitial nephritis - nephrotic syndrome - hyperkalemia - hyponatremia - water retention - papillary necrosis - chronic renal insufficiency


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Labels
Diabetology Endocrinology Internal medicine
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