Dengue fever


Authors: M. Trojánek 1;  V. Marešová 1;  F. Stejskal 1,2,3
Authors‘ workplace: I. infekční klinika, 2. LF UK v Praze a Nemocnice Na Bulovce, Praha Přednosta: doc. MUDr. Dušan Pícha, CSc. 1;  Infekční oddělení, Krajská nemocnice Liberec Primář: MUDr. Adam Vitouš 2;  Ústav imunologie a mikrobiologie, 1. LF UK v Praze a VFN, Praha Přednostka: prof. RNDr. Libuše Kolářová, CSc. 3
Published in: Prakt. Lék. 2013; 93(4): 163-168
Category: Various Specialization

Overview

Dengue fever is considered to be the most widely spread arthropod-borne viral disease, which is present in many tropical and subtropical regions. Infection is produced by any of four closely related serotypes of dengue RNA virus, which belongs to the family Flaviviridae. The principal vectors of dengue are Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Dengue represents one of the most frequently imported febrile tropical infections to developed countries from South and Southeast Asia and Latin America. The infestation with Aedes albopictus mosquitoes is considered as significant risk for the disease spread to new non-endemic regions. These mosquitoes are present even in southern Europe, where cases of autochthonous transmission have recently been described. Infection may be asymptomatic or presents as classical dengue fever or may lead to dengue haemorrhagic fever and shock syndrome. Severe infections are seen more frequently in young children and are usually associated with secondary infection with a different dengue serotype. Dengue has an incubation period of around 4 to 7 days. Typical symptoms are fever, arthralgia, myalgia, headache and maculopapular rash. Laboratory findings include leukocytopenia, thrombocytopenia and elevation of aminotransferases. Diagnosis can be confirmed by ELISA detection of IgM and IgG antibodies, however, recently methods of direct detection have been introduced such as detection of viral RNA or NS1 antigen, which are usually positive in the early febrile phase of dengue. There is no specific treatment available, future vaccines are intended for use especially for children living in the endemic areas.

Keywords:
dengue – tropical medicine – imported infections – fever


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