Systemic risk factors in prevention of diabetic retinopathy


Authors: L. Křížová
Authors‘ workplace: Univerzita Karlova, Praha ;  1. lékařská fakulta ;  Ústav klinické biochemie a laboratorní diagnostiky 1. LF UK a VFN ;  Přednosta: prof. MUDr. Tomáš Zima, DrSc., MBA.
Published in: Prakt. Lék. 2009; 89(5): 227-229
Category: Reviews

Overview

Aim:
Today, blindness from diabetic retinopathy (DR) is preventable with timely diagnosis and appropriate therapeutic intervention. The aim of this review is to refer to systemic risk factors that contribute to the onset and progression of DR and to emphasize the role of general practitioners and other specialists in the long-term care of diabetic patients.

Findings:
The most important determinants in onset and progression of DR and macular edema are disease duration and the level of metabolic control. Intensive treatment of systemic hypertension reduces the risk of new onset of DR and slows the progression of existing DR. Diabetic nephropathy and anemia can lead to progression of DR. Hyperlipoproteinemia is associated with the amount of macular exudates and increase of visual acuity. Therapeutic anticoagulation is not contraindicated in any form of DR. During pregnancy, decompensation of DR can occur, therefore is it essential to control the patients regularly.

Conclusion:
Patients’ general condition and concomitant systemic disorders might have a significant impact on the onset and progression of diabetic retinopathy and loss of vision. Interdisciplinary cooperation in diagnosis and therapy of diabetes and other systemic disorders can improve both the systemic and ocular health of patients with diabetes.

Key words:
diabetic retinopathy, risk factors, prevention, diabetes mellitus.


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